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This page features brief excerpts of news stories published by the mainstream media and, less frequently, blogs, alternative media, and even obviously biased sources. The excerpts are taken directly from the websites cited in each source note. Quotation marks are not used.
This page features brief excerpts of news stories published by the mainstream media and, less frequently, blogs, alternative media, and even obviously biased sources. The excerpts are taken directly from the websites cited in each source note. Quotation marks are not used. Because most of our readers read the NYT we usually do not include the paper's stories in HIGHLIGHTS.
Name of source: Chronicle of Higher Education
SOURCE: Chronicle of Higher Education (9-6-05)
Equiano's account of the Middle Passage in his 1789 autobiography, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African, Written by Himself, is considered definitive."The closeness of the place and the heat of the climate," he wrote,"added to the number in the ship, which was so crowded that each had scarcely room to turn himself, almost suffocated us. ... The wretched situation was again aggravated by the galling of the chains, now become insupportable. ... The shrieks of the women, and the groans of the dying, rendered the whole a scene of horror almost inconceivable."
Equiano says he was born in 1745 in"a charming fruitful vale, named Essaka," in an Igbo-speaking region on the west coast of Africa in what is now southeastern Nigeria. But in a forthcoming biography of Equiano, Mr. Carretta presents evidence he found in public records that Equiano was born in South Carolina.
Mr. Carretta's conclusions threaten a pillar of scholarship on slave narratives and the African diaspora. Questioning Equiano's origins calls into doubt some fundamental assumptions made in departments of African-American studies and among historians and literary critics who study the British Atlantic world. Scholars have also relied on Equiano for his account of 18th-century life in West Africa.
Mr. Carretta's findings have not won him friends in certain circles.
"I've gotten quite negative reactions from some people in African-American studies, and some very negative reactions from Nigerians, particularly Igbos," he says."He's a national hero, particularly in Igboland, what would have become Biafra."
The Chronicle of Higher Education is holding a debate on the subject this week. Click here.
SOURCE: Chronicle of Higher Education (9-6-05)
At the very least, the offers for undergraduates include waivers of late fees, help with financial-aid arrangements, and extra instructional support. Several states -- including Texas, to which many Louisiana residents fled -- say they will allow out-of-state students displaced by the hurricane to enroll at in-state rates. Law schools and other graduate programs are extending offers as well.
Some undergraduate colleges -- among them Franklin Pierce College, in New Hampshire, and John Brown University, in Arkansas -- are offering displaced students full tuition, room, and board. Great Basin College, a community college in Elko, Nev., says it can fly in 30 to 50 students on a chartered flight, enroll them in classes, put them up in the community, and set up a meal plan for them. Harvard University says it will admit 25 displaced students as visiting undergraduates free of charge, and will offer housing on a space-available basis. "Priority will be given to students rendered homeless by the storm," the university's announcement says.
Other institutions that are accepting displaced students -- such as the University of Miami, which has already received more than 400 inquiries -- are trying to keep in mind both the needs of the students and the well-being of the universities that found themselves in the Katrina's way. These institutions say they will collect tuition from the displaced students but hold it in escrow for the colleges the students normally attend.
Name of source: Inside Higher Ed
SOURCE: Inside Higher Ed (9-6-05)
Other colleges in New Orleans may well be forced to make similar decisions. And academic meetings scheduled to take place in New Orleans during the next few months are being moved or called off. But a number of other colleges that suffered damage from Katrina are announcing plans to re-open for this semester.
Meanwhile, colleges nationwide continue to offer slots to students — and in some cases, faculty members — displaced by Katrina.
Name of source: NYT
SOURCE: NYT (9-6-05)
"Cities rise and fall depending on what made them go in the first place," said Peirce Lewis, an expert on the history of New Orleans and an emeritus professor of geography at Pennsylvania State University.
Changes in climate can make a friendly place less welcoming. Catastrophes like volcanoes or giant earthquakes can kill a city quickly. Political or economic shifts can strand what was once a thriving metropolis in a slow death of irrelevance. After the Mississippi River flood of 1993, the residents of Valmeyer, Ill., voted to move their entire town two miles east to higher ground.
What will happen to New Orleans now, in the wake of floods and death and violence, is hard to know. But watching the city fill up like a bathtub, with half a million people forced to leave, it has been hard not to think of other places that have fallen to time and the inconstant earth.
Some of them have grown larger in death than they ever were in life.
A few photographs from the full cache of 1,602 images illustrated music-album covers in the 1960's. But the pictures - recorded by about a dozen photographers to document the Depression's effects on rural America and to rally support for government relief efforts - received little attention after ending up at the Library of Congress in 1946, said Beverly W. Brannan, the library's curator for prints and photographs.
"There were questions for years about whether color photography was truly art," she said. "They were not taken as seriously as black-and-white images." The library also became the repository for 171,000 black-and-white photographs from the farm agency and the war information office.
Laith Kubba, a spokesman for the prime minister, Ibrahim al-Jaafari, said the trial would begin Oct. 19, four days after a national vote on a proposed new constitution. The trial raises the possibility that Mr. Hussein, who faces the death penalty if convicted, could be hanged within months.
Four days ago, Iraq carried out its first court-ordered execution since the fall of Mr. Hussein's government, hanging three people convicted in May in the southern city of Kut of rapes and killings.
The charges stem from the killing of 143 people and the imprisonment of hundreds of families after the assassination attempt in Dujail on July 8, 1982, he said.
After the failed attack on Mr. Hussein, Iraqi officials executed men and boys from Dujail, a largely Shiite town 35 miles north of Baghdad. Investigators for the special tribunal that will try Mr. Hussein have said another 1,500 Dujail residents were later ordered incarcerated in a prison in a desolate stretch of desert near the Saudi Arabian border.
Senate leaders agreed this morning to delay by at least two days the start of Mr. Roberts's confirmation hearing, which had been set to begin on Tuesday, when he was being considered to succeed Justice Sandra Day O'Connor. Now that Mr. Bush has nominated him for the chief justice's job, several Senate and Congressional leaders had asked that the hearings be delayed until after Chief Justice Rehnquist's funeral, which is set for Wednesday.
The hearings will begin as early as Thursday and no later than next Monday, with a final decision on timing expected following further discussions.
''Justice Ginsburg declined to answer senators' questions 55 times,'' said Senator John Cornyn, Republican of Texas. The senator said he would love to know Judge Roberts's views of court rulings on the taking of private property and the display of the Ten Commandments. ''But,'' he said, ''I recognize that there are limits.''
''If he is a Miguel Estrada and just refuses abjectly to answer everything it would make a filibuster more likely,'' said Senator Charles E. Schumer, the New York Democrat. He called the Ginsburg precedent ''a myth'' and said she answered numerous questions about past cases and judicial philosophy.
The very practice of subjecting a Supreme Court nominee to intensive questioning is relatively new; there were no hearings at all until the 20th century and the first would-be justice to testify on his own behalf was Felix Frankfurter in 1939, according to Donald A. Ritchie, the associate Senate historian. ''He showed up and gave a very genial testimony,'' Mr. Ritchie said.
Things have grown more orchestrated since. When Antonin Scalia came before the Judiciary Committee in 1986, he refused even to say whether he subscribed to the principle of Marbury v. Madison, the fundamental 1803 decision that established the authority of the Supreme Court to strike down laws as unconstitutional.
"China did not seek hegemony in the past, and it will never seek hegemony in the future," Mr. Hu said at a ceremony at the Great Hall of the People. "By solemnly commemorating that victory, we will keep history in mind, never forget the past, cherish peace and create a better future."
Mr. Hu had planned his first visit as president to the United States next week, but the White House canceled a Wednesday summit meeting because of the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. The White House said Mr. Hu and President Bush would meet during the annual opening session of the United Nations General Assembly, which begins Sept. 13.
Mr. Hu made a dry, measured speech. He said he did not intend to"give rise to hatred" for Japan. But he also criticized"some elements" of Japanese society for failing to recognize Japan's wartime aggression and the atrocities it inflicted on China during its 1931-1945 occupation.
In a gesture directed at another Chinese rival, Taiwan, Mr. Hu and other senior officials used the 60th anniversary ceremony to modify a major element of Communist dogma: Beijing's contention that Communists fought valiantly against the Japanese while the ruling Nationalists under Chiang Kai-shek attacked the rebel Communist army instead.
Mr. Hu recognized the contributions of Nationalist military leaders in fighting the Japanese during his address, while several other officials offered more detailed tributes, though they still attributed the overall victory to the leadership of the Communist Party.
Mr. Preminger, a 59-year-old former soda jerk who is married to a television executive, has shared his knowledge and presented his collection of candy store memorabilia at churches, synagogues, senior centers and historical societies. The other day, while handling the plastic wristwatches and comic books in his collection, he talked about this small corner of a bygone New York world.
THIRTY years ago I came across a candy store on Avenue U in Marine Park, Brooklyn. I walked in and there was everything from my childhood, just frozen in time. I talked to the owner and he let me rummage through the shelves, through layers and layers of dusty games and coloring books and novelty items from the 40's and 50's. It was so interesting that I began going to other neighborhoods and doing the same thing. I became what I would call a candy store archaeologist.
The problem isn't that writers and their editors are corresponding less, it's that they're corresponding infinitely more -- but not always saving their e-mail messages. Publishing houses, magazines and many writers freely admit they have no coherent system for saving e-mail, let alone saving it in a format that would be easily accessible to scholars. Biography, straight up or fictionalized, is arguably one of today's richest literary forms, but it relies on a kind of correspondence that's increasingly rare, or lost in cyberspace.
This year alone Farrar, Straus & Giroux published ''The Letters of Robert Lowell'' and a biography of the critic Edmund Wilson that draws on his letters. But that doesn't necessarily mean the company is saving its own communication with writers. ''I try to save substantive correspondence about issues concerning books we're working on, or about our relations with authors, but I'm sure I don't always keep the good stuff -- particularly the personal interchanges, which is probably what biographers would relish,'' Jonathan Galassi, the president and publisher of Farrar, Straus & Giroux, said (via e-mail, of course, like most of the editors and writers interviewed for this story). ''I don't think we've addressed in any systematic way what the long-term future of these communications is, but I think we ought to.''
The memorandum was written in response to a letter to the Justice Department in which TransAfrica's president at the time, Randall Robinson, said he would be providing a free subscription of the organization's policy journal.
TransAfrica was set up to lobby the government on behalf of American blacks on issues relating to Africa and the Caribbean. It had organized a series of successful demonstrations outside the South African Embassy before that country abandoned apartheid.
Mr. Roberts's superior, Kenneth W. Starr, asked him in a memorandum to draft a thank-you note to TransAfrica. Instead, Mr. Roberts wrote on Feb. 16, 1982, that no thank-you note should be sent. "Sometimes silence is golden," he wrote. "TransAfrica is the American lobby group supporting various Marxist takeover attempts in Africa, particularly Namibia."
SOURCE: NYT (9-3-05)
Supreme Court history is filled with testaments to the impact of personality and the significance of personal interaction. Prof. Sanford V. Levinson of the University of Texas School of Law has studied the career of Justice Felix Frankfurter, the indisputably brilliant Harvard Law School professor named to the court by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
"Professor Frankfurter thought it was his role to socialize newcomers," Professor Levinson said, adding that Justice Frankfurter could be so condescending and overbearing, as in one instance when he sent Justice John Marshall Harlan a disapproving note with instructions to "read and reread" a particular essay on jurisprudence, "that he pushed away his natural friends and allies."
In similar fashion today, Justice Antonin Scalia, another former law professor with a tongue as sharp as his wit, has not fulfilled predictions that his intelligence and charm would make him a leader on the court. "Everybody expected Scalia to be able to charm his colleagues, and the biggest surprise of his tenure is that he has played William O. Douglas rather than William Brennan," Professor Levinson said, referring to one of the court's most famous curmudgeons and one of its most successful salesmen.
Kathleen Arburg, the court's public information officer, said Chief Justice Rehnquist, 80, had died at his home in Arlington, Va., surrounded by his three children. She said he had been working at the court during the summer recess until his health declined a "precipitous decline" in the last few days.
Although the chief justice was known to be seriously ill with the thyroid cancer, which was diagnosed last October, his death at this moment came as a surprise. Six weeks ago, with rumors swirling that he would soon retire, he issued an unusual statement declaring that he would continue to serve as chief justice "as long as my health permits."
The last time the Supreme Court had two vacancies at once was in 1971, when Justices Hugo Black and John Marshall Harlan retired in the face of terminal illnesses. President Richard M. Nixon then named William H. Rehnquist, who was an assistant attorney general, to one of the vacancies and Lewis F. Powell Jr. to the other. Justice Rehnquist took his seat on January 7, 1972. President Ronald Reagan named him in 1986 to be the 16th chief justice of the United States.
SOURCE: NYT (9-3-05)
After severe flooding in the Midwest in 1993, FEMA under Mr. Witt, for example, bought more than 10,000 properties adjacent to rivers and relocated residents and businesses. In Grafton, Ill., where 403 residents and businesses applied for disaster aid after the 1993 flood, only 11 applied when the river overflowed again in 1995, FEMA said at the time.
The approach to disaster management changed with the arrival of President Bush, experts in emergency management say. Mr. Bush appointed Mr. Allbaugh, who was Mr. Bush's chief of staff when he was governor of Texas.
Testifying before Congress in 2001, Mr. Allbaugh said he was concerned that federal disaster assistance had become "an oversized entitlement program" and made it clear that the new administration wanted to curtail FEMA's mission.
His goal, he said, was to "restore the predominant role of state and local response to most disasters."
While Mr. Allbaugh was FEMA director, the Bush administration, with the backing of Congress, reversed the emphasis on preventing flooding, cutting the formula for such federal grants by half.
SOURCE: NYT (9-2-05)
"We want young people to know about people who took this step, to leave their homes for the unknown world," said Andreas Heller, the architect who designed the Bremerhaven museum, describing emigration as "a long journey, and maybe a journey with no coming back."
SOURCE: NYT (9-1-05)
Why this sudden activity? After all, reopening issues like forced disappearances, torture and state-sanctioned murder is painful for any society and hardly as popular with voters as, say, creating jobs or building roads or schools.
"What's happening now is not a coincidence, or like some kind of flower that has blossomed overnight," argues Víctor Abramovich of the Center for Legal and Social Studies here, one of Argentina's leading human rights group. "It's a regional process that has taken years to mature."
Indeed, even nations that for years did their utmost to forget the past have now been confronting incidents once thought safely buried. In Uruguay, a leftist government, led by Tabaré Vázquez, took power for the first time in March and a former president, Juan María Bordaberry, was indicted three months later for the 1976 murders of two political leaders.
Mexico charged one of its former presidents, Luis Echeverría, with genocide last year for his role in a "dirty war" against students and leftists in the late 1960's and early 1970's. And in Peru, military, intelligence and police officials involved in abuses during the authoritarian rule of Alberto K. Fujimori in the 1990's are also facing charges.
One factor is clearly generational. Men and women who came of age politically during the height of the abuses in the 1970's are now becoming presidents, judges, cabinet ministers and senators, like President Néstor Kirchner here and his wife, Senator Cristina Fernández.
Name of source: Boston Globe
SOURCE: Boston Globe (9-6-05)
The oversight was perhaps more understandable given that society as a whole seemed to have tabled its debate over poor, largely black, inner-city neighborhoods somewhere around two decades ago.
The notion that a disaster offers a mirror to the country, forcing a bitter reconsideration of its own condition, should not be a surprise. It happened in the United States with the 1927 Louisiana flood, a catastrophe that shook American politics in its time.
Back in the Jazz Age, the America of Wall Street wealth and scientific advances paid little heed to the still-primitive conditions of the rural poor. While the lights of Times Square dazzled the world, most of the South still lacked electricity; while Charles Lindbergh stretched the bounds of what was humanly possible by flying nonstop across the Atlantic, families in the Mississippi Delta lacked even flat boats to carry them to safety in a flood.
Back then, it didn't take a hurricane to break the levees along the Mississippi. Heavy rains in the summer of 1926 left the river and many of its tributaries dangerously overswollen, and by the winter of 1926-1927 areas within 60 miles of the Mississippi basin began to fill up with water. Six states were affected, with Louisiana among the worst hit, even though the destruction of levees north of New Orleans spared the city at the expense of rural areas.
The death toll was 246, but 700,000 people -- half of them black -- were displaced. Then, as now, haunting pictures and descriptions of the devastation shocked the country. Many blacks were herded into unsanitary evacuation camps.
Amid rising public anger, Herbert Hoover -- then the secretary of commerce -- swept in to oversee relief efforts. Hoover won high marks for his take-charge attitude, though many scholars believe that black resentment over the way the Republican administration handled relief efforts caused the historic shift in black allegience from the Republican to Democratic Party.
The need for federal action challenged President Calvin Coolidge's belief in small government. Coolidge's lack of comprehension of the scope of the disaster was ridiculed in songs, and some historians now regard it as a symbol of Jazz Age indifference, a preview of the social disarray that would mark the Depression years.
SOURCE: Boston Globe (9-5-05)
"Nature has denied to us the fertile soil and genial climate of other lands, but by way of compensation has endowed us with unrivaled opportunities of turning our streams of water to practical account," the court said.
The court reasoned the overriding public benefits justifying the takings were the jobs provided by the mills and the wages spent on commodities produced in New Hampshire.
Name of source: Christian Science Monitor
SOURCE: Christian Science Monitor (9-6-05)
Now, with the passing of the chief justice on Saturday evening, legal historians and constitutional scholars are assessing the Rehnquist legacy. It is an assessment that began months ago amid speculation of Rehnquist's possible retirement.
He is being called a highly effective chief justice, both in terms of his impact on the law and the efficient and congenial way he managed an institution often at the center of America's white-hot culture wars.
Others say his influence was undercut by the dynamics of a splintered court largely controlled, in high-profile cases at least, by two centrist swing voters - Justices Sandra Day O'Connor (who announced her retirement July 1) and Anthony Kennedy.
In the end, the high court never emerged under Chief Justice Rehnquist as a conservative juggernaut. To some relieved liberals and disappointed conservatives, the Rehnquist era might be remembered as "the counterrevolution that wasn't," says Tinsley Yarbrough, a Supreme Court biographer and historian.
But it was not for lack of presidential effort. Since 1969, 10 of the last 12 justices have been appointed by Republican presidents. And while the court's center has shifted to the right, the so-called Rehnquist court nonetheless retained a penchant for producing major liberal landmarks.
Over Rehnquist dissents, the high court upheld abortion, affirmative action, gay rights, online pornography, and flag burning. It struck down capital punishment for juveniles and the mentally retarded, ordered the all-male Virginia Military Institute to accept female cadets, and struck down state regulation of so-called partial-birth abortions.
This is not exactly the wish list that Republican presidents may have had in mind when selecting their Supreme Court nominees. But such liberal victories should not obscure the broader significance of Rehnquist's legacy, analysts say.
Name of source: Scotsman
SOURCE: Scotsman (9-6-05)
Born in Dumfriesshire in 1784, Jardine left Scotland after completing his medical degree at the University of Edinburgh to work onboard ship as a surgeon's mate. Realising that there was more money to be made in trade he began importing and exporting goods from India to Britain.
Matheson was born in Sutherland and started out as an employee of the East India Company. When he and Jardine met they both wanted to escape the stronghold of the company. The place to do this was in China.
A great proponent of Adam Smith, Matheson saw in China the obvious necessity for free trade.
"Did not the laws of nature," he asked, "oblige all people to mingle freely with each other?" His conclusion was obvious. China must open and he believed Britain would do it.
So began a process which historian and broadcaster Saul David considers to be one of the most unforgivable acts of empire, saying:
"It was one of the blackest marks in the Imperial story, capitalism and mercantilism at its worst."
The enormous problem facing traders in China was the inequality of trading options. This imbalance was soon to be answered.
Name of source: Wall Street Journal
SOURCE: Wall Street Journal (9-5-05)
In New Orleans, the worst-hit parishes were the lower-income ones. But the city also ignored the power of nature. More than 1 million acres of Louisiana's coastal wetlands, or 1,900 square miles, have been lost since 1930, due to development and the construction of levees and canals. Barrier islands and stands of tupelo and cypress also vanished. All of them absorb some of the energy and water from storm surges, which, more than the rain falling from the sky, caused the current calamity.
The temporary lull in hurricane activity in Florida, from 1969 to 1989, spurred a reckless building boom, for example, putting billions of dollars worth of condos and hotels within reach of storm surges, notes Roger Pielke Jr., of the University of Colorado, Boulder. The Great Miami Hurricane of 1926 would have caused an estimated $90 billion damage had it occurred in 2000, he calculated. It caused just over $1 billion, in today's dollars.
It isn't only hurricanes whose destructiveness has been increased by human actions. Tornadoes turn mobile homes into matchsticks (one of Steinberg's first jobs was at a New York brokerage firm, where he followed the trailer-home industry). From 1981 to 1997, he found, more than one-third of all deaths from tornadoes occurred among people living in mobile homes; federal regulations didn't require them to withstand high winds, and a 1974 statute actually pre-empted stricter state standards with more lax federal ones.
Throughout the South and Midwest, mobile-home communities and poor neighborhoods are also much more likely to be sited in flood plains.
Name of source: AP
The chocolate bomb was illustrated in documents which also explained that it was intended to blow up seven seconds after someone tried to break off a piece. The sketch of the device, labeled in English, was apparently made by British agents.
"The bomb is made of steel with a thin covering of real chocolate," the note said. "When the piece of chocolate at the end is broken off the canvas shown is pulled, and after a delay of seven seconds the bomb explodes."
Other German designs included bombs disguised as tins of plums, throat lozenges, shaving brushes, batteries, wood, coal and stuffed dogs.
British agents did intercept one bizarre innovation — bombs disguised as cans of peas.
When elevated to that job in 1986, some clerks wondered whether the 62-year-old conservative could lead the court effectively after dissenting in so many of its decisions since he became an associate justice in 1972. But Rehnquist showed little doubt that he could stage a conservative revival on an aging court known for liberal rulings that established a right to an abortion and set a strict line between church and state.
Stern in keeping lawyers punctual in oral arguments, the Nixon appointee nicknamed the "Lone Ranger" because of his solo dissents was genial with his colleagues and gave them equal speaking time — regardless of their ideology — in private justice conferences.
"I used to worry about every little footnote," said Rehnquist, who later built majorities with several new Republican appointees. "Now I realize you just need five votes."
Rehnquist served 33 years — the third longest in court history. He was chief justice for 19. His mixed legacy as an efficient administrator who stemmed, but did not completely reverse, the court's liberal tide from the 1950s to the 1970s offers useful lessons on what makes a chief justice successful.
It is a complex mix of qualities — from having the gravitas and political savvy to persuade colleagues and win over the public, to the intellect and organizational skills to issue decisions and run the massive federal court system.
Other factors — such as having at least four like-minded colleagues to back a chief justice's philosophy — might be out of the chief's control.
SOURCE: AP (9-1-05)
In 1939, Poland was invaded by Germany to its west and the Soviet Union to its east. After the Nazis attacked the Soviets, Poland came entirely under German control and subject to a brutal occupation. It become the hub of Hitler's program to exterminate Europe's Jews, under which 6 million were murdered.
At the ceremony on Westerplatte, Koehler and Polish president Aleksander Kwasniewski walked to a monument to the war's first victims. They were killed on the peninsula in the Baltic port of Gdansk when a German warship began shelling a Polish munitions depot and garrison on Sept. 1, 1939, as the Nazis launched their invasion.
To the roll of military drums, Koehler and Kwasniewski walked behind soldiers, who placed large wreaths on their behalf, and bent over simultaneously to arrange the wreath's ribbons, each in the colors of their respective national flags.
The presidents then took two steps back, joined hands for a moment of silence and bowed toward the wreaths.
At a Gdansk high school later, the two stressed the need for tolerance between cultures, especially in fighting terrorism.
Name of source: Deutsche Presse-Agentur
SOURCE: Deutsche Presse-Agentur (9-5-05)
Museum directors are still struggling to calculate the extent of losses. One of the biggest concerns is the state of the collection that was housed at the Old U.S. Mint in the French Quarter. The building's roof was torn off when Hurricane Katrina lashed the city on August 29. The collection includes musical instruments, film, prosters and photographs, news reports said.
But there also was some good news for New Orleans jazz fans when it was announced Sunday that the legendary Preservation Hall in the French Quarter was not affected by the flood. The Association of American Museums said at its website that the 255-year-old building around the corner from Bourbon Street and three blocks from the Mississippi River suffered no serious damage.
Other historic locations that sustained damage in the storm and the ensuing flood that resulted from levee and floodwall breaks include the Louis Armstrong House, the archives of the Jean Lafitte Museum and the National Cemetery, final resting place for soldiers who served in the Civil War.
"History is literally drowning," Chris Lee of the rock band Supagroup told the Dallas Morning News last week. New Orleans has been "a musician's paradise", he said, but he worries that the vibrant scene might be gone if musicians start to leave.
Name of source: Washington Times
SOURCE: Washington Times (9-4-05)
"This is one of the most destructive natural disasters ever measured in the amount of homes destroyed, people affected, people displaced," said Jan Egeland, the United Nations' undersecretary-general for humanitarian affairs.
While Katrina certainly has earned her deadly reputation, the storm's destructive catwalk through America's underbelly is not the first time the unfettered fury of nature -- or even mankind's own doings -- has drowned, burned or buried people in their own homes, schools and workplaces, or spawned legions of refugees desperately seeking rescue, shelter or a drink of water.
Name of source: LAT
SOURCE: LAT (9-2-05)
Three books with gay themes, including Maya Angelou's "I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings," were among the works most criticized.
"It all stems from a fearfulness of well-meaning people," says Michael Gorman, president of the library association. "We believe in parental responsibility, and that you should take care of what your children are reading. But it's not your responsibility to tell a whole class of kids what they should read."
SOURCE: LAT (9-4-05)
SOURCE: LAT (9-4-05)
In both cases, they say, cities crucial to the U.S. economy of the era -- San Francisco's financial might and New Orleans' offshore oil reserves -- were hit by a natural disaster: one by an 8.3 magnitude temblor and the other by a Category 4 hurricane.
But after withstanding the first blow, both cities suffered extensive damage from the unexpected second punch that followed within hours.
Fires raged in San Francisco for three days, leveling 90% of the city's structures, including 37 national banks. In New Orleans, several levees were breached, causing massive flooding and forcing evacuation of the city.
Historians point out that the Bay Area debacle was in part caused by a lack of water; New Orleans suffered from too much of it.
Stephen Becker, executive director of the San Francisco-based California Historical Society, said that even though they occurred 99 years apart, the similarities between the two catastrophes are uncanny.
Both primarily affected the poor, for a time rendering the cities essentially unlivable. They were followed by street looting and other crimes, and evoked immediate soul-searching about what government agencies could have done to more quickly alleviate the suffering and prevent widespread loss of lives and property.
"Both disasters were followed by the 'blame game,' " he said.
In San Francisco, a malfunctioning water system meant there was not enough water to fight the ensuing fires. As a result, authorities used gunpowder to blow up buildings as a firebreak -- a move that only started more fires.
"In San Francisco, people wanted to know why, despite numerous warnings, officials had not improved the water system," Becker said. "In New Orleans, people are asking, 'How do you more quickly get the logistical work done to patch those damaged levees?' It has proven not an easy thing to do at all."
Many of the estimated 3,000 San Francisco casualties a century ago were poor Italian, Irish and Chinese immigrants who lived in cramped, substandard housing. The temblor struck at 5:12 a.m. on April 18, 1906, killing many people in their beds.
For years, the official death toll stood at 478. But decades of research by Gladys Cox Hansen, curator at the Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco, indicates that more than 3,000 died.
Name of source: CNN
SOURCE: CNN (9-3-05)
Name of source: The State (SC)
SOURCE: The State (SC) (9-4-05)
U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice William Rehnquist grew up in Wisconsin, was educated in Massachusetts and California, and raised a family in Arizona.
But his life’s work has had a particular impact on South Carolina people and institutions.
In 1983 Rehnquist cast the single dissenting vote in a case that determined whether Bob Jones University in Greenville, because it segregated students on the basis of race, should be eligible for tax-exempt status.
The other justices reasoned that the federal government had the right to deny Bob Jones the status because it discriminated.
Rehnquist defended his dissent by arguing that Congress, but not the IRS, was empowered to make that determination.
IN 1994-5 as the justice charged with overseeing S.C. matters before the Supreme Court, Rehnquist lifted the stay that prevented Shannon Faulkner from becoming the first woman to attend classes at The Citadel.
He again ruled in Faulkner’s favor when the school in 1995 tried to prevent her from joining the military college’s corps of cadets.
Name of source: China View
SOURCE: China View (9-4-05)
The interview was carried out when China marked the 60th anniversary of the Chinese people's war of resistance against Japanese aggression and the world anti-fascist war.
Lien's grandfather moved to the mainland after Taiwan was cededto Japan in 1895. Recalling his childhood during the war of resistance against Japanese aggression in northwest China, he saidthe bombing of Japanese planes was "too fierce and cruel."
"The July 7 Incident in 1937 was a unprompted and self-conscious rebellion of the whole Chinese nation against Japanese aggression. I believe it was a history of struggle of theentire nation, which is of a historical significance to today's Taiwan in particular," he said.
Name of source: Financial Times (London)
SOURCE: Financial Times (London) (9-3-05)
Throughout history, intelligence agencies and secret agents are the most easily mocked of public servants. Their necessary secrecy gives rise to sinister interpretations. They have to bribe, seduce, blackmail or cajole men and women into betraying their own country or cause. They make mistakes, are venal. But they are necessary. The terror attacks are alerting a public sleepy-eyed after reading too much John le Carre to the real-time importance of intelligence. To understand what needs to be done we need to look at past successes and failures. Luckily there is now a new wave of spy books - fact rather than fiction - which examines in detail achievements and cock-ups. These new volumes are much richer than the unending sequence of spy thrillers, a genre that is running out of steam.
The endless literature on Enigma and Ultra barely mentions the contribution the Poles made in giving Churchill the priceless secret that helped win the war. One reason was the disappearance in 1945 of all the files that recorded the contribution Polish intelligence made to the Allied war efforts. As the Soviet Union rose to world power status, official London placated Sovietism by writing the Poles out of second world war history. Polish airmen and soldiers were not even allowed to march in any of the victory parades at the war's end.
Name of source: HNN
SOURCE: HNN (9-2-05)
SOURCE: HNN (9-3-05)
Name of source: Network of Concerned Historians
SOURCE: Network of Concerned Historians (9-3-05)
International PEN greets with shock the news that the world-famous Turkish writer, Orhan Pamuk, will be brought before an Istanbul court on 16 December and that he faces up to three years in prison for a comment published in a Swiss newspaper earlier this year.
The charges stem from an interview given by Orhan Pamuk to the Swiss newspaper Das Magazin on 6 February 2005 in which he is quoted as saying that "thirty thousand Kurds and a million Armenians were killed in these lands and nobody but me dares to talk about it".
Pamuk was referring to the killings by Ottoman Empire forces of thousands of Armenians in 1915-1917.Turkey does not contest the deaths, but denies that it could be called a "genocide". His reference to "30,000" Kurdish deaths refers to those killed since
1984 in the conflict between Turkish forces and Kurdish separatists.
Debate on these issues have been stifled by stringent laws, some leading to lengthy lawsuits, fines and in some cases prison terms.
Article 301/1 of the Turkish Penal Code under which Orhan Pamuk will be tried is a case in point. PEN sees it extraordinary that a state that has ratified both the United Nations International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the European Convention on Human Rights, both of which see freedom of expression as central, should have a Penal Code that includes a clause that is so clearly contrary to these very same principles. To quote Article 301/1: "A person who explicitly insults being a Turk, the Republic or Turkish Grand National Assembly, shall be imposed to a penalty of imprisonment for a term of six months to three years." To compound matters, Article
301/3 states: "Where insulting being a Turk is committed by a Turkish citizen in a foreign country, the penalty to be imposed shall be increased by one third." So, if Pamuk is found guilty, he faces an additional penalty for having made the statement abroad.
Joanne Leedom Ackerman, International Secretary of International PEN states that "International PEN is deeply concerned by the efforts of the public prosecutor to punish and therefore curb the free expression of Orhan Pamuk, not only in Turkey, but abroad." She adds that "It is a disturbing development when an official of the government brings criminal charges against a writer for a statement made in another country, a country where freedom of expression is allowed and protected by law."
The trial against Orhan Pamuk is likely to follow the pattern of those against other writers, journalists and publishers similarly prosecuted. Karin Clark, Chair of PEN's Writers in Prison Committee points out that "PEN has for years been campaigning for an end to Turkish courts trying and imprisoning writers, journalists and publishers under laws that clearly breach international standards to the Turkish government itself has pledged commitment." Although the numbers of convictions and prison sentences under laws that penalise free speech has declined in the past decade, PEN currently has on its records over 50 writers, journalists and publishers before the courts. This is despite a series of amendments to the Penal Code in recent years which were aimed at meeting demands for human rights improvements as a condition for opening talks into Turkey's application for membership of the European Union. The most recent changes were enacted in June this year. Journalists in Turkey have staged protests against the fact that there remain considerable problems in the revised Penal Code. In April International PEN joined its the International Publisher's Association in a statement to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights which described the newly revised Penal Code as "deeply flawed".
Orhan Pamuk is one of Turkey's most well known authors, whose works have been published world wide in over 20 languages. In 2003 he won the International IMPAC award for "My Name is Red". His 2004 novel "Snow" has met with similar acclaim. His most recent book, "Istanbul", is a personal history of his native city.
In early 2005, news of the interview for which Pamuk will stand trial led to protests and reports that copies of his books were burned. He also suffered death threats from extremists. PEN members world-wide then called on the Turkish government to condemn these attacks.
Name of source: American Association of Museums
SOURCE: American Association of Museums (9-2-05)
Name of source: Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs
SOURCE: Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs (9-1-05)
Name of source: Advertiser (Australia)
SOURCE: Advertiser (Australia) (9-3-05)
"The invasion myth had remained alive for 60 years, abetted by the seeming need of Australians to dramatise their situation in 1942," he said.
"Why can't we as a nation accept that the war the Allies fought was decided far from Australia - North Africa, north-west Europe and above all on the steppes of European Russia," he said. "Why do we appear to want to believe that Australia really was threatened with invasion, that it was attacked."
He said such a desire was "poignant and rather pathetic". Dr Stanley said the bombing of Darwin, the Japanese advance through Papua New Guinea and other military activities around Australia had nothing to do with any invasion plan.
Name of source: Newsletter of the National Coalition for History
SOURCE: Newsletter of the National Coalition for History (9-2-05)
On 29 August 1985, in his capacity as a lawyer for President Reagan, Roberts vigorously argued that White House internal files should be kept secret and should not be released even to the U.S. Senate if requested by that body to win confirmation for a presidential nominee slotted for a senior government post. Roberts argued that the White House should not facilitate document release and suggested, "Hill staffers need only go to the Reagan Library to see any internal White House deliberative document they want to see." Roberts stated, "We should take whatever steps are necessary to ensure the general opening of files to Hill scrutiny...does not become routine."
Furthermore, Roberts characterized the Presidential Records Act of 1978 which provides for the eventual opening of virtually all documents housed in a president's library as "pernicious." In taking these positions, Roberts views are consistent with those held by many senior Bush administration officials who have repeatedly opposed actions that they consider to be an erosion of presidential prerogatives and powers.
SOURCE: Newsletter of the National Coalition for History (9-2-05)
Introduced in the House of Representatives as H. J. Res. 59, by Rep. Shelley Berkley (D-NV), this resolution highlights some of the most important figures in the women's suffrage movement, the actions they undertook for the right to vote, and resolves that a national day of recognition be created in honor of the suffragists. Glen Taylor Elementary School students Hannah Low and Destiny Carroll inspired the resolution by starting their own petition drive and collecting hundreds of signatures supporting the idea of a national day of recognition.
Name of source: Willie Drye at website of National Geographic News
SOURCE: Willie Drye at website of National Geographic News (9-2-05)
Katrina's rapid intensification from 80 mph winds to 175 mph was similar to the Labor Day hurricane of 1935, which exploded from a tropical storm with winds of about 40 miles an hour (65 kilometers an hour) to a killer hurricane in about 30 hours. The storm's eye struck Long Key, Florida with winds of perhaps 200 miles an hour (320 kilometers an hour) and a storm surge that completely submerged parts of the island chain.
More than 400 people were killed, including about 260 World War I veterans who were working on a highway construction project. The veterans were being housed in flimsy beachfront work camps on the low-lying islands.
Name of source: Hurricane Katrina: Civil War Damage Assessment
SOURCE: Hurricane Katrina: Civil War Damage Assessment (9-2-05)
The Cafe du Monde, home of smoky chicory coffee, did not appear to suffer extensive damage. Many of the city's oldest neighborhoods, including the Bywater and the 9th Ward on the east side, were lost under the floods. On Burgundy Street, a building that once housed slaves collapsed. At one historic above-ground cemetery, a lot in the Garden District known as Lafayette No. 1, uprooted magnolia trees destroyed part of a 200-year-old wall believed to contain human remains. The stately U.S. Mint in the French Quarter, once seized by the Confederate army, is missing part of its roof. No one knows what has become of the artifacts inside."
"Not even counting the French Quarter, every part of New Orleans has incredible historic resources," said John Hildreth, director of the National Trust for Historic Preservation."It's absolutely gut-wrenching to see this destruction on top of the human suffering."
Cindy Gardner, field services curator of the Old Capitol Museum, reports that the museum had 1/3 of its copper roof blown off. Water has been pouring in to an exhibit area and a storage room. Staff has been working on moving hundreds of wet artifacts and some that are completely ruined.
The museum recently accepted a check for $17,000 from the Sons of Confederate Veterans for restoration work on a flag of the 33rd Mississippi Infantry. Further details on their work and collection, with updates on their status, can be found at their MDAH website.
The State Capitol building during the Civil War. In 1847 its walls saw a gathering of Jefferson Davis and the Mississippi Volunteers on their victorious return from the Mexican War. In 1861 the passage of the Ordinance of Secession took place here, and in 1865 the first Constitutional Convention in the South after the fall of the Confederacy was held here.
Fort Jackson has been flooded. (Click here for a picture.) In his attack upon New Orleans during the Civil War, Admiral Farragut's fleet pounded Fort Jackson for ten days before it surrendered to the Union forces. In the years that followed, Fort Jackson was used as a prison, a training facility, and fortified again during the Spanish-American War. Fort Jackson is located along LA Highway 23, at Plaquemines Bend (about 12 miles above Venice, LA), and is now accessible to the public as a historical tourist and cultural recreation center.
Vicksburg: Numerous trees, some over 50 years old, fell during the storm. The canopy
covering the USS Cairo ripped in several places. Shingles blew off the cemetery
maintenance shop roof and a tree penetrated the ranger cache roof. Cooper caps
blew off the cemetery gazebo.
The park visitor center is open. Staff cleared trees and limbs in order to partially re-open the tour road to Pemberton Avenue and the South Loop.
Name of source: News Release from the David S. Wyman Institute for Holocaust Studies
SOURCE: News Release from the David S. Wyman Institute for Holocaust Studies (9-1-05)
But according to Dr. Rafael Medoff, director of the David S. Wyman Institute for Holocaust Studies: “It's irrelevant if Leni Riefenstahl wasn't a member of the Nazi Party or wasn't Hitler's girlfriend. She was the leading artist making propaganda for the most evil regime in human history. Instead of defending Riefenstahl as an alleged victim of 'libel', Jodie Foster should frankly confront the reality that Riefenstahl is an example of how art can be perverted to promote fascism, racism, and genocide. Sadly, it appears from Ms. Foster's statements that her intention is to defend Riefenstahl.”
Riefenstahl was Hitler's hand-picked filmmaker and directed such films as "Triumph of the Will" (1934), which Who’s Who in Nazi Germany characterizes as “perhaps the most effective visual propaganda for Nazism ever made.” The then-president of the Motion Picture Association of America, Jack Valenti, has written: "Young German girls and boys in 1941 were mesmerized by Leni Riefenstahl's Triumph of the Will, in which Adolf Hitler is pictured as a new-born God." The Oscar-winning British filmmaker Arnold Schwartzman has noted, “Riefenstahl was probably the best propaganda tool that Hitler had and a lot of the terrible things that happened were as a consequence of what she did. There is no doubt she was a brilliant woman and a great documentarian, but she used her skills to rouse the German people into going along with Hitler.”
Riefenstahl even used Gypsy prisoners from German concentration camps as extras in one of her films. Although Riefenstahl later claimed she did not support the Nazis, the historical record shows that when Hitler conquered Paris in 1940, she sent him a telegram declaring: “Your deeds exceed the power of human imagination. They are without equal in the history of mankind. How can we [the German people] ever thank you?”
In an interview in the latest issue of Premiere magazine (September 2005), Ms. Foster was asked: "For years, you've been planning a biopic about Leni Riefenstahl, who directed the Nazi propaganda film Triumph of the Will and who died two years ago. Are you still going to make it?"
Foster replied: "Yeah, we're still working on the script, and I'm still going to play her. I met her a couple of times ... She wrote a biography that's almost all lies, but it's interesting. I wanted her archives, but I didn't want her involvement [in the film]--and that's something she really wanted, because she'd been libeled so many times. She was not a member of the Nazi Party, and she was not Hitler's girlfriend--that's just stupid. But she's a complex morality tale.”
Dr. Medoff said: “Foster is wrong. There’s nothing morally complex about what Riefenstahl did as Hitler’s favorite filmmaker. The only thing complex is Foster’s confusion on this issue.”
Last year, the Wyman Institute publicly criticized the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences for including Riefenstahl in a memorial tribute to recently-deceased movie industry figures during the annual Academy Awards ceremony.
Name of source: Romanesko
SOURCE: Romanesko (9-1-05)
Name of source: Wa Po
SOURCE: Wa Po (9-1-05)
Their biggest enemy is mildew.
"When we do retrieved artifacts, we're dealing in extreme mold," West said. "Anytime 48 hours pass, you get mold. You have to fight mold. We've seen it turn the most amazing colors -- bubble-gum pink once."
The preservationists dried and blotted a million artifacts from colonial Jamestown in Virginia after Hurricane Isabel hit in 2003. Last year, they used boats to get to 300,000 artifacts in the Fort Pickens museum near Pensacola, Fla., after Hurricane Ivan.
Once it gets the all-clear in the coming days, the preservation team will head to the Crescent City to retrieve documents, photographs, furniture and other pieces of history that have marked the rich life of a city founded in 1718 and occupied by the French, Spanish, Creoles, Americans, Confederates, fire, disease and water -- again and again.