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dave schumber - 7/30/2005

Christianity is clearly a hateful and bigotted religion. The worst sins of the caste system cannot even compare to what Christianity did and still does.

In Canada, thousands of Christian priests have been convicted of sexually assaulting natives in churches on reservations. Christianity clearly tortures those that are tricked into converting.

Look at how Christianity has treated natives:

SOUL WOUND: The Legacy of Native American Schools.

by Andrea Smith for Amnesty Now, Summer 2003, pp.14-16.

Andrea Smith (Cherokee) is interim coordinator for the Boarding School Healing Project and a Bunche Fellow coordinating AIUSA's [Amnesty International USA] research project on Sexual Violence and American Indian women.




"A little while ago, I was supposed to attend a Halloween party. I decided to dress as a nun because nuns were the scariest things I ever saw," says Willetta Dolphus, 54, a Cheyenne River Lakota. The source of her fear, still vivid decades later, was her childhood experience at American Indian boarding schools in South Dakota.

Dolphus is one of more than 100,000 Native Americans forced by the U.S. government to attend Christian schools. The system, which began with President Ulysses Grant's 1869 "Peace Policy," continued well into the 20th century. Church officials, missionaries, and local authorities took children as young as five from their parents and shipped them off to Christian boarding schools; they forced others to enroll in Christian day schools on reservations. Those sent to boarding school were separated from their families for most of the year, sometimes without a single family visit. Parents caught trying to hide their children lost food rations.

Virtually imprisoned in the schools, children experienced a devastating litany of abuses, from forced assimilation and grueling labor to widespread sexual and physical abuse. Scholars and activists have only begun to analyze what Joseph Gone (a Gros Ventre), a psychology professor at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, calls "the cumulative effects of these historical experiences across gender and generation upon tribal communities today."

"Native America knows all too well the reality of the boarding schools," writes Native American Bar Association President Richard Monette, who attended a North Dakota boarding school, "where recent generations learned the fine art of standing in line single-file for hours without moving a hair, as a lesson in discipline; where our best and brightest earned graduation certificates for homemaking and masonry; where the sharp rules of immaculate living were instilled through blistered hands and knees on the floor with scouring toothbrushes; where mouths were scrubbed with lye and chlorine solutions for uttering Native words."

Sammy Toineeta (Lakota) helped found the national Boarding School Healing Project to document such abuses. "Human rights activists must talk about the issue of boarding schools," says Toineeta. "It is one of the grossest human rights violations because it targeted children and was the tool for perpetrating cultural genocide. To ignore this issue would be to ignore the human rights of indigenous peoples, not only in the U.S., but around the world."

The schools were part of Euro-America's drive to solve the "Indian problem" and end Native control of their lands. While some colonizers advocated outright physical extermination, Captain Richard H. Pratt thought it wiser to "Kill the Indian and save the man." In 1879 Pratt, an army veteran of the Indian wars, opened the first federally sanctioned boarding schoo: the Carlisle Industrial Training School, in Carlisle, Penn.

"Transfer the savage-born infant to the surroundings of civilization, and he will grow to possess a civilized language and habit," said Pratt. He modeled Carlisle on a prison school he had developed for a group of 72 Indian prisoners of war at Florida's Fort Marion prison. His philosophy was to "elevate" American Indians to white standards through a process of forced acculturation that stripped them of their language, culture, and customs.

Government officials found the Carlisle model an appealing alternative to the costly military campaigns against Indians in the West. Within three decades of Carlisle's opening, nearly 500 schools extended all the way to California. The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) controlled 25 off-reservation boarding schools while churches ran 460 boarding and day schools on reservations with government funds.

Both BIA and church schools ran on bare-bones budgets, and large numbers of students died from starvation and disease because of inadequate food and medical care. School officials routinely forced children to do arduous work to raise money for staff salaries and "leased out" students during the summers to farm or work as domestics for white families. In addition to bring in income, the hard labor prepared children to take their place in white society the only one open to them---on the bottom rung of the socioeconomic ladder.

Physical hardship, however, was merely the backdrop to a systematic assault on Native culture. School staff sheared children's hair, banned traditional clothing and customs, and forced children to worship as Christians. Eliminating Native languages---considered an obstacle to the "acculturation" process---was a top priority, and teachers devised an extensive repertoire of punishments for uncooperative children. "I was forced to eat an entire bar of soap for speaking my language," says AIUSA activist Byron Wesley (Navajo).

The loss of language cut deep into the heart of the Native community. Recent efforts to restore Native languages hint at what was lost. Mona Recountre, of the South Dakota Crow Creek reservation, says that when her reservation began a Native language immersion program at its elementary school, social relationships within the school changed radically and eachers saw a decline in disciplinary problems. Recountre's explanation is that the Dakota language creates community and respect by emphasizing kinship and relationships. The children now call their teachers "uncle" or "auntie" and "don't think of them as authority figures," says Recountre. "It's a form of respect, and it's a form of acknowledgment."

Native scholars describe the destruction of their culture as a "soul wound," from which Native Americans have not healed. Embedded deep within that wound is a pattern of sexual and physical abuse that began in the early years of the boarding school system. Joseph Gone describes a history of "unmonitored and unchecked physical and sexual aggression perpetrated by school officials against a vulnerable and institutionalized population." Gone is one of many scholars contributing research to the Boarding School Healing Project.

Rampant sexual abuse at reservation schools continued until the end of the 1980s, in part because of pre-1990 loopholes in state and federal law mandating the reporting of allegations of child sexual abuse. In 1987 the FBI found evidence that John Boone, a teacher at the BIA-run Hopi day school in Arizona, had sexually abused as many as 142 boys from 1979 until his arrest in 1987. The principal failed to investigate a single abuse allegation. Boone, one of several BIA schoolteachers caught molesting children on reservations in the late 1980s, was convicted of child abuse, and he received a life sentence. Acting BIA chief William Ragsdale admitted that the agency had not been sufficiently responsive to allegations of sexual abuse, and he apologized to the Hopi tribe and others whose children BIA employees had abused.

The effects of the widespread sexual abuse in the schools continue to ricochet through Native communities today. "We know that experiences of such violence are clearly correlated with posttraumatic reactions including social and psychological disruptions and break-downs," says Gone.

Dolphus, now director of the South Dakota Coalition Against Sexual and Domestic Violence, sees boarding school policies as the central route through which sexual abuse became entrenched in Native communities, as many victims became molesters themselves. Hopi tribe members testified at a 1989 Senate hearing that some of Boone's victims had become sex abusers; others had become suicidal or alcoholic.

The abuse has dealt repeated blows to the traditional social structure of Indian communities. Before colonization, Native women generally enjoyed high status, according to scholars, and violence against women, children, and elders was virtually non-existent. Today, sexual abuse and violence have reached epidemic proportions in Native communities, along with alcoholism and suicide. By the end of the 1990s, the sexual assault rate among Native Americans was three-and-a-half times higher than for any other ethnic group in the U.S., according to the Department of Justice's Bureau of Justice Statistics. Alcoholism in Native communities is currently six times higher than the national average. Researchers are just beginning to establish quantitative links between these epidemic rates and the legacy of boarding schools.

A more complete history of the abuses endured by Native American children exists in the accounts of survivors of Canadian "residential schools." Canada imported the U.S. boarding school model in the 1880s and maintained it well into the 1970s---four decades after the United States ended its stated policy of forced enrollment. Abuses in Canadian schools are much better documented because survivors of Canadian schools are more numerous, younger, and generally more willing to talk about their experiences.

A 2001 report by the Truth Commission into Genocide in Canada documents the responsibility of the Roman Catholic Church, the United Church of Canada, the Anglican Church of Canada, and the federal government in the deaths of more than 50,000 Native children in the Canadian residential school system.

The report says church officials killed children by beating, poisoning, electric shock, starvation, prolonged exposure to sub-zero cold while naked, and medical experimentation, including the removal of organs and radiation exposure. In 1928 Alberta passed legislation allowing school officials to forcibly sterilize Native girls; British Columbia followed suit in 1933. There is no accurate toll of forced sterilizations because hospital staff destroyed records in 1995 after police launched an investigation. But according to the testimony of a nurse in Alberta, doctors sterilized entire groups of Native children when they reached puberty. The report also says that Canadian clergy, police, and business and government officials "rented out" children from residential schools to pedophile rings.

The consequences of sexual abuse can devastating. "Of the first 29 men who publicly disclosed sexual abuse in Canadian residential schools, 22 committed suicide," says Gerry Oleman, a counselor to residential school sirvivors in British Columbia.

Randy Fred (Tsehaht First Nation), a 47-year-old survivor, told the British Columbia Aboriginal Network on Disability Society, "We were kids when we were raped and victimized. All the plaintiffs I've talked with have attempted suicide. I attempted suicide twice, when I was 19 and again when I was 20. We all suffered from alcohol abuse, drug abuse. Looking at the lists of students [abused in the school], at least half the guys are dead."

The Truth Commission report says that the grounds of several schools contain unmarked graveyards of murdered school children, Including babies born to Native girls raped by priests and other church officials in the school. Thousands of survivors and relatives have filed lawsuits against Canadian churches and governments since the 1990s, with the costs of settlements estimated at more than $1 billion. Many cases are still working their way through the court system.

While some Canadian churches have launched reconciliation programs, U.S. churches have been largely silent. Natives of this country have also been less aggressive in pursuing lawsuits. Attorney Tonya Gonnella-Frichner (Onondaga) says that the combination of statutes of limitations, lack of documentation, and the conservative makeup of the current U.S. Supreme Court make lawsuits a difficult and risky strategy.

Nonetheless, six members of the Sioux Nation who say they were physically and sexually abused in government-run boarding schools filed a class-action lawsuit this April against the United States for $25 billion on behalf of hundreds of thousands of mistreated Native Americans. Sherwyn Zephier was a student at a school run from 1948 to 1975 by St. Paul's Catholic Church in Marty, S.D.: "I was tortured in the middle of the night. They would whip us with boards and sometimes with straps, he recalled in Los Angeles at an April press conference to launch the suit.

Adele Zephier, Sherwyn's sister, said, "I was molested there by a priest and watched other girls" and then broke down crying. Lawyers have interviewed nearly 1,000 alleged victims in South Dakota alone.

Native activists within church denominations are also pushing for resolutions that address boarding school abuses. This July the first such resolution will go before the United Church of Christ, demanding that the church begin a process of reconciliation with Native communities. Activists also point out that while the mass abductions ended with the 1934 Indian Reorganization Act (IRA), doctors, lawyers, and social workers were still removing thousands of children from their families well into the 1970s. Even today, "Indian parents continue to consent to adoptions after being persuaded by 'professionals' who promise that their child will fare better in a white, middle-class family," according to a report by Lisa Poupart for the Crime and Social Justice Associates.

Although there is disagreement in Native communities about how to approach the past, most agree that the first step is documentation. It is crucial that this history be exposed, says Dolphus. "When the elders who were abused in these schools have the chance to heal, then the younger generation will begin to heal too."

Members of the Boarding School Healing Project say that current levels of violence and dysfunction in Native communities result from human rights abuses perpetrated by state policy. In addition to setting up hotlines and healing services for survivers, this bread coalition is using a human rights framework to demand accountability from Washington and churches.

While this project is Herculean in its scope, its success could be critical to the healing of indigenous nations from both contemporary and historical human rights abuses. "Native communities, the project's founders hope, will begin to view the abuse as the consequence of human rights violations perpetuated by church and state rather than as an issue of community dysfunction and individual failings. And for individuals, overcoming the silence and the stigma of abuse in Native communities can lead to breakthroughs: "There was an experience that caused me to be damaged," said boarding school survivor Sammy Toineeta. "I finally realized that there wasn't something wrong with me."




dave schumber - 7/30/2005

LOL, have a look at the 'faith' these missionaries come from; looks like these 'Christians' love enslaving people, and their Bible condones it!!

Racism's Biblical basis
Protestant churches in the southern U.S. once preached that slavery was sanctioned by God

Author explores the role played by the so-called curse of Ham in Genesis, Michael McAteer writes

Interracial marriage was a crime in South Carolina as late as 1998 when the state repealed its anti-miscegenation law.
Although the repeal was supported by a majority of voters in a referendum, almost 40 per cent opposed it. Among them was a Republican state representative who argued interracial marriage was "not what God intended when he separated the races back in Babylonian days." His stance, he acknowledged, probably stemmed from his Southern Baptist upbringing.
Disassociating his denomination from the representative's remarks, a spokesperson for the 16 million-member Southern Baptist Convention (SBC) said that "to wrap our prejudice in the Scripture is a sinful thing to do" and referred to the SBC's 1995 public repentance for the role slavery played in its formation 150 years earlier.
The SBC's belated apology to African-Americans for "condoning and/or perpetuating individual and system racism" came 133 years after slavery was abolished in the southern states following the southern defeat in the American Civil War, and almost 400 years after the first slaves were unloaded on American soil.
Breaking from northern Baptists over the issue of missionaries owning slaves, the ultra-conservative, evangelical SBC preached a Biblical basis for slavery and later used its pulpits to vigorously oppose anti-segregation laws.
Today, the largest Protestant denomination in the U.S. forms a significant segment of Christian support for the Bush administration and has endorsed the U.S. invasion of Iraq as necessary to stop "rogue states" from acquiring weapons of mass destruction.
Baptists were not the only southern Protestants who preached that slavery was in harmony with Christianity and the Bible and was sanctioned by God. Other Christians used the pulpit to fertilize the weeds of bigotry, discrimination and oppression to produce one of the most shameful chapters of U.S. history.
As Stephen Haynes notes in Noah's Curse: The Biblical Justification of American Slavery. (Oxford University Press, 2002), the 1864 general assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the Confederate States of America affirmed it was the mission of the Southern Church to conserve the institution of slavery, and to make it a blessing both to master and slave.
And then there was the Rev. Benjamin Morgan Palmer, who plays a central role in Haynes book.
Streets, parks schools and orphanages in the U.S. South bear the name of this prominent Christian evangelist, orator, "founding father" of the Southern Presbyterian Church and esteemed New Orleans clergyman of the second half of the 19th century. But, as Haynes points out, Palmer was also a vicious bigot, "a vociferous advocate of slavery who relied on the so-called curse of Ham to justify the South's peculiar institution."
A staunch defender of Southern interests, Palmer viewed the Civil War as a "holy" conflict between a righteous South and an ungodly North and devoted much of his time and energy to ensuring that God's design of racial separation and Anglo-Saxon domination were reflected in church and society alike.
Coincidentally, Palmer, who died in 1902, is recognized as the "father" of what was once Southern Presbyterian University and is now Rhodes College, a liberal arts institution in Memphis Tenn., where Haynes, a Southerner and Presbyterian clergyman is professor of religious studies.
A college commemorative plaque praises the "father" of an institution "which was the first to place the Bible as a required textbook in its curriculum and which through all the years continues to enshrine this ideal of Christian education." In Palmer's hands, the textbook was a teaching tool to underscore biblical texts justifying not only slavery in general but also the enslavement of Africans in particular.
In Genesis, the first book of the Old (Hebrew) Testament, the story is told of Ham coming across his naked father Noah who was sleeping off a drunken binge. Instead of covering his father, Ham runs and tells his brothers Shem and Japheth who avert their eyes and cover their father's nakedness. In retaliation for Ham's behaviour, Noah puts a curse on Ham's son, Canaan.
"Cursed be Canaan, lowest of slaves shall he be to his brothers."

There is no specific condemnation of slavery anywhere in the Bible

The Bible is silent on what it is that Ham did to bring down Noah's wrath upon his grandson. And while both books of the Bible are replete with references to slavery and how it should be regulated, there is no specific condemnation of the practice.
In Exodus, it is written that `if a man beats his male or female slave with a rod and the slave dies as a direct result, he must be punished, but he is not to be punished if the slave gets up after a day or two, since the slave is his property."
The apostle Paul did proclaim that in Christ there was "no longer Jew or Greek, slave or free, male and female, Matthew did say "a disciple is not above the teacher, nor a slave above the master."
In Karen Armstrong's book, In the Beginning: A New Interpretation of Genesis, the well-known author and lecturer suggests that Noah's refusal to take responsibility for his drunken state shifted his guilt and self-disgust onto an innocent party, Canaan.
"Some of the worst atrocities of history have occurred as a result of this type of scapegoating when we blame others for our own crimes and inadequacies," Armstrong says. "It provided a rational for Israel's later subjugation of the Canaanites and the proposed genocide of the native people of the Promised Land as described in the Book of Joshua."
With the later belief that Africans were Ham's descendants, "the scriptural defense of slavery had evolved into the most elaborate and systematic statement of proslavery theory," Haynes says.
What distinguishes Palmer among former slave apologists, says Haynes, is something he shares with many American Bible readers: "the American penchant for reading Genesis as a manifesto of racial destiny quite apart from the question of slavery. Palmer, who read Noah's curse as a blueprint for the natural hierarchy of humans, insisted that God had assigned the American people a unique historic mission.
Outside of slavery, he argued, the black race would experience "rapid extermination before they had time to waste away through listlessness, filth and vice."
And while he was not the first to assert that aboriginal Americans' displacement by Europeans was an act of providence, Haynes says Palmer used a Biblical text that was pivotal in American debates regarding the destinies of Africans and Europeans to illuminate the fate of the American Indian.
"As a Christian rhetorician, Palmer's goal was to demonstrate that the `practical extinction' of Native Americans under the pressure of an expanding white civilization was in conformity with the divine plan revealed in scripture."
Because the majority of Americans now share the "vision of an integrated society," Haynes says it is tempting to regard Noah's curse as discredited and irrelevant.
However, he cautions that "the stereotypes and myths that once animated racial readings of Genesis continue to operate in the American imagination." And, "given the enduring American fascination with Noah's curse, the potential for Palmer's `genocidal' reading of the curse to justify genocidal assault on a minority population should never be discounted."
As long as people read the Bible to seek justification for group hegemony, Palmer's racist views should not be regarded as ideological relics, Haynes says.
"Noah's curse may be dormant, but it is not dead: it may be in remission but it is still in need of a remedy."

Michael McAteer can be reached at mrpmcateer@aol.com.


Kenneth T. Tellis - 7/28/2005

There is without question a fact that racism ties-in with the Caste System of India. Though the average Brahmin will totally deny that it is still in practice.

Ron Bannerjee, Hindu Conference of Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, came out with a new spin. He spoke of India's meritocracy, which treated everyone as equals and that the caste system was a false stereotyping of India. Of course there were others, who claimed that the Christian Missionaries Motives sometimes less than noble.

Lets look at a clearer picture of the scenario. Chritian Missiories were indeed proselytizing the the low castes and poor, which meant that the caste system was beinng invaded. This was a threat to the life-style of the high-caste Hindus, who have been using them as indentured slaves for centuries. This would dig into the profits they made out of indentured slavery, and that would impact their daily lives. All they had to do was put an end to the CASTE SYSTEM and no one could complain.

If we condemned Apartheid in South Africa yesterday, how can we accept the caste system of India today? A thousand Tsunamis can come and go, but nothing will change the lives of low caste people, if the caste system remains law in India.


joseph j intili - 6/20/2005

please1 how dare you write as you or the papres inuiendos are truth,why would anyone even expect photographs? now that every one is dead that can attest just change the story around,give doucmentation,and aso a Professor Aldridge wrote a book,we wouldent want to think he was trying to make money in these trying times would we? WHERE IS THE BEEF did anyone ever think of finding and asking Dirk the kid just the fact the writer of this article would put such a statement "no photograph of his family have ever been
located,ambigious much? did anyone go back to the rubble where his family was killed,should he have a photo in his pocket,if he had then the spew would be How would he just happen to have a photo,perhaps he Dirk should have kept his Mother's leg or finger to prove his case
In closing think of it a book that takes how much time to write,how much time to publish is going to reach how manny people? how many people actually bought the book,how many actually endorsed us joing the war because of this ...more revisionisom


joseph j intili - 6/20/2005

you stated the illumination of Lincons Homosexuality,its no illumination its the gay rights agenda to make Americans accept the homosexual life style,one person or two perhapas write a book of pure speculation and inuiendo and already you are saying the illumination,please,the speculation is absurd at best your being disingenious at best with 21 centry mind set thinking .One would think why would Lincon sleep in the same bed with his Capitan,well in the 1800s,and being a kind man that is of no concenquence ,and being he may have had woman isues who doesnt!it is very disheartning to see people come out of the woodwork[revisionists]and try and change history on a inuiendo,or perhaps a paper or storie some one wrote,its so absurd take the Divinchi Code,some one with a agenda wrote a fiction novel,then some others try and make a truth out of a Novel,Please!! just because you want it to be,it doesn't make it so!.You say it appears tio me there may be some truth to this alligation,You would disparage a man after his death?.Yes i know yoyu would say it'as not dispariging,but bottom line,would Lincon feel its dispariging,perhaps people are not as politicaly correct as you,political correctness is another of restraining people from having their own thoughts and expressing ,it was a master plan while it worked but people are figuring it out,it was a Democratic plan, for massing mind think,imagine a Mother or Daughter calling their own family member a racist or a bigot for thinking differntly ,it manifests then a person could arguably become resistent to giving their opinion,


Mitchell Santine Gould - 6/5/2005

Dear HNN:

On the verge of 150 years of Whitman scholarship, I am calling for an overhaul of our understanding of the origins of Leaves of Grass, based upon Whitman's lifelong obsession with three themes: "sailor, lover, or quaker."

To understand why, please see:

http://generalpicture.typepad.com/leavesofgrass/2005/06/whitmans_sailor.html

Ciao,

Mitchell Santine Gould
Curator, LeavesofGrass.Org


ricardo cabrera - 4/23/2005

I was wondering if africans the people to civilize eastern mexico (olmec) why did the africans stop coming to the americas? the agricultural wealth of the americas was not transfered to the old world til after european contact. for the best of my knowledge there are no traces of beans, maize, chocolate, tomatoes or anything similar to that in the old world, also there is no evidence of old world vegetables/fruit in the americas. there is no wheat, barley, rice or any old world products found in the americas. wouldnt these african travelers brought with them provisions with them on this trip and wouldnt they transplanted those vegetables/fruits in the americas? why?


denise bradley - 3/26/2005

How true this is if only we could look beyond color or race this world would be so much better


Natalie Rosen - 1/11/2005

I have heard and read histories that suggest Lincoln was homosexual. There have been other occupants (not necessarily presidents) of the White House whose sexuality has been questioned. This is not shocking to me. Why should the White House be any different from the general human population? There is no doubt that homosexuality exists among people in every nook and cranny of the globe, in every ethic group, and in every religious and non-religious segment of population. Often, it has been my experience with regard to prominent persons, where there is smoke there is sometimes fire but who can tell for sure. Obviously, the historical context of Lincoln was not the same as one who lives in 21st century America. Indeed, men from the frontier slept together to preserve space. Who will ever really know unless something in pen and ink written by Lincoln himself is discovered to put the speculation to rest. It appears to me that there may be truth to this allegation. However, the bigger question I think is why the American public still is quaking at the thought of a beloved personality’s' homosexuality. It seems we simply cannot rest with this notion. It is too bad that the illumination of Lincoln's homosexuality -- if true -- would somehow change our perception of one of our most important and arguably greatest presidents.


Paul Alfred Barton - 1/9/2005

News reports that the Black Untouchables of India affected by the Tsunami tragedy were and are being mistreated and neglected has sent alarms around the world. The idea that a tragedy like the Tsunami would not bring about the humanity in human beings is beyond belief to many people, particularly those in nations that believe in the God-given right of humans to be free and to be treated with respect, (see article at Yahoo News.com ).

Untouchability is the most horrible and odious form of racism ever devised. It is racism because it is based on race and color and began as a system of oppression based on race and color. Today, untouchables are primarily of Black Indo-Negroid Dravidian and Kushic-speaking as well as "Ayranized," Indians of India. Yet, untouchability also affects some lightskinned people and whites (Europeans) to Black African types of faces and features are victims of this racist caste system.

THE ORIGINS OF THE CASTE SYSTEM

According to M. Gopinath, ("Nagaloka: The Glorious and Fractured History of the Bahujan Indians," pub. by Dalit Sahitya Akademy, Bangalore, India), the Black Untouchables are part of the prehistoric Black Naga race also known as the Indo-Negroid race or Sudroid race,(see Hari Rao). The Blacks of India are now classified as part of the global Pan-Negro people and includes Black Africans, African-Americans, Melanesians, Indian Ocean Africoids, SE Asian Negritoes, Negro-Australoids such as the Australian Aborigines and Negroids. All these groups are related to small groups of Africans who migrated from Africa between 100,000 years ago to as recently as 2000 BC. In fact, according to I. Raikadroka, the Fijian Representative of Los Angeles, Africans from Tanganyika (Tanzania/Zanzibar) were migrating to the Fiji Islands earlier than 2000 BC. The former foreign Minister of Papua New Guinea, Ben Tangghama pointed out in the paper "Black Books Bulletin," during the 1974 period in an interview, that "the Blacks of Asia and Africa are related in the past, present and future."

SOME OF THE FIRST CIVILIZATIONS IN ASIA FOUNDED BY BLACK CUSHITES AND NEGRO-AUSTRALOIDS

The Dimunitive Negroids, taller (robust) Negroids and Negro-Australoid groups began to migrate from the Sahara and East Africa into Asia as early as 100,000 BC as full Homosapiens. Remnants of these three related groups are found in South Arabia (the Mahra), India (Oong,Jawara, Tamils, Indo-Negroids, Negro-Australoids), Negritos of Malaysia, SE Asia, Melanesia (Melanesian Negroids), Australia (Aborigines), Philipines (Agta).

INVASION OF EURASIANS INTO INDIA

The racist caste system was introduced into India its its racist form by foreign invaders from Eurasia who applied the 'varna' or 'color consciousness' system of class stratification. This was implemented after centuries of warfare against the Indo-Negroid and Negro-Australoid civilizations such as Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, (see "A History of Racism and Terrorism, Rebellion and Overcoming," published by Xlibris, www.Xlibris.com also see "African Presence in Early Asia," by Ivan Van Sertima and "Susu Economics," pub. by www.AuthorHouse.com )

The caste system is based on physical appearance and ancestry. The Black Untouchables are direct descendents of the ancient Indo-Negroid Blacks who fought the invasions. Gopinath states that the invaders were able to use the ancient religion to implement the brutal caste system and to degrade the Black race of India.

Still, the vast majority of Indians are said to have Indo-Negroid roots, with those in the South being among the purest Black Negroid people on earth, while those in the north-west being primarily of Eurasian Caucasian origins but still having some Aboriginal blood.

Black Untouchables/Dalits and other oppressed people in India are part of the Pan-Negro community of almost two billion people worldwide. Genetics and appearance places the vast majority of people in India and South Asia among the Africoid people of the earth. In fact, many Indo-Negroid groups are the clue to the origins of some of the peoples of Asia including the Indo-Chinese, Indonesian and some of the very lightskinned Eurasian peoples (see "A History of Racism and Terrorism, Rebellion and Overcoming," pub. by www.Xlibris.com also see "A History of the African-Olmecs," pub. by www.AuthorHouse.com

The Black Negro-Australoid people and the distinct Negro/Black peoples of Asia hold the key to the origins of all the peoples of Asia, SE Asia, Eurasia and elsewhere. These Black Negro-Australoid peoples who originated in Africa migrated as far as Australia and the Americas.

From being the most advanced civilizations on earth as recently as the Middle Ages (the Black Khmer and Indochinese cultures, the Black states of South India) to being oppressed through much of South Asia and SE Asia today, the almost 500 million Dalits, Black Tribals, Indo-Negroids and other Negroid and Dimunitive Negroid peoples of Asia need the help of the world and of their people worldwide in order to revive their cultures and preserve their peoples.
Indo-Negroid Peoples:
www.dalitstan.org/books/sudroid

The continued odious treatment of Dalits, Black Untouchables and Blacks in parts of Asia is an insult to humanity and an insult to the Pan-Negroid peoples of this planet. The irony is that today, caste discrimination is based on race as well as on ancestry. Hence, a person of blonde hair and blue eyes can be an untouchable if an ancient ancestor was among the original Indo-Negroid peoples who fought the invaders and refused to be 'Hinduized." In fact a few 'untouchables,' are rather lightskinned, even as India's 'Bollywood' element continues to portray India and its people as a near-white to light-brown country. More on the Untouchables, http://www.dalitstan.org

INDIA AND INDIANS CAN GAIN THE WORLD'S RESPECT

The hatred for people from India, particularly those who are in the higher castes and who are represented in Bollywood movies is deep around the world. This is a sad and sorrowful situation because many Indians are not casteists. Yet, many Europeans who are the whitest of whites consider East Indians, especially the light-skinned "Mediterranean-featured' Caucasian types as close to the Negroid peoples of India. People in East Asia including Chinese, Japanese, Koreans and others see East Indians as part of the Negroid races. Africans see light-skinned East Indians as close to Arabs and Mediterranean peoples, while the darkskinned, "Negroid featured" East Indians are classified with Africans.

These conceptions are correct. The genome project places most East Indians in the southern part of India as clustering genetically and physically identical with the Black African Negro race. Those East Indians in the North particularly in the Punjab/Cowbelt region, genetically cluster to Europeans, while those in the North-East are related to Mongoloids.

Hence, India has a way to go, but as soon as India starts to realize (as many nations are doing today) that the Black Negro element of India has made tremendous contributions to sedentary civilization in India and South Asia and that Black Negro blood blesses large numbers of Indians, and that equal treatment and recognizing the rights of Black Untouchables, Indo-Negroids, Black Dravidians, Black Tribals, Negro-Australoids, Mongoloid Tribals and Negritoes, as well as the ruling elite of Indo-Eurasians are all part of India and can all contribute....THAT IS WHEN INDIA WILL REACH ITS FULL POTENTIAL AND MOST NATIONS WILL STOP THINKING OF 'CASTE' AND FAIRSKINNED EAST INDIANS AS PARIAHS SIMILAR TO THE APARTHEID SOUTH AFRICANS.

Fortunately, there are many East Indians in the Western Nations who treat all people with a sense of respect and equality but the time has come for East Indians and Asians of the Indo-Negroid and Negro-Australoid Black race to accept their Black Negroness with pride.

As the world looks at Sri Lanka and Tamil Nadu, they see Indo-Negroids, Negro Australoids and people of Negroid racial origins. Do they discriminate? Most nations, particularly the US, some European nations, Africans, some Far Eastern nations and others are helping because we are all vulnerable on this planet and one day we may be the ones asking for help.

In retrospect, the time has come for the 500 million Black Untouchables, Black Tribals, Negritoes, Indo-Negroids, Black Melanesian Negroids, Oceanic Negroids and the great mass of Blacks in Asia to be treated with respect and fairness by the rest of humanity. Africans in Africa and African peoples in the Diaspora consider the Blacks of Asia to be part of the Pan-Negro Diaspora whether they are in Sri Lanka, South and East India, or West Papua, Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea, East Timor or Australia.

It is beyond many in America and the West and particularly among the 300 million Blacks in the Americas who suffered similar conditions during slavery and Jim Crow), why the Black Dalits of India or any other group of the original peoples of India Sri Lanka, South India or anywhere in Asia, would be treated so horribly. These are all human beings with the spiritual and physical selves whether they are rich or poor.

India (like Sudan with a similar problem of sanctified racism and genocide against Black African Kushites) will become a greater nation when all are allowed contribute to its greatness. One day nations like India, Sudan, Nigeria and other nations with large numbers of free and oppressed Negroid/Black peoples will make greater contributions to humanity because all will be encouraged to participate and contribute without regard to caste, tribe, skin color or race. One of the reason for the continued greatness of the United States and some European nations is because people are treated fairly and encouraged to participate more than in most places on earth. There was a time in Sudan (Kush) and East Indian (Indus Valley, Dravidian/Indo-Negroid civilizations) when fair and equal treatment was the law and the norm. Both regions prospered. That time is here again. It is not ironic that the two largest Black Kushite-speaking cultural cores (Sudan and South India) are now in the News and oppression of the peoples who are the core of the cultures and civilizations (South Sudanese Black Kushiitic peoples and South Indian Indo-Negroid Dalits) now have the world's attention on them. It was about time.

http://www.dalitstan.org/books/sudroid
www.dalitstan.org/books/sudroid
MORE ON THE BLACK UNTOUCHABLES OF INDIA
see http://community.webtv.net/paulnubiaempire
also read, "The Black Untouchables of India," by V.T. Rajshekar, pub. by www.claritypress.com and "A History of Racism and Terrorism, Rebellion and Overcoming," pub. by www.Xlibris.com and "Susu Economics," published by www.AuthorHouse.com

http://www.cwo.com~/lucumi/runoko.html
http://www.cwo.com/~lucumi/runoko.html

Nubiaben


Michael Finn - 1/8/2005

In response to the Breaking News link to the Guardian Article regarding the Papcy and its alledged cooperation with the Nazi's during WWII you should note the following:

His Holiness Pope Pius XII continues to come
under attack for his so called “cooperation” with the Nazis during World War II. Let’s set the historical record straight and look at the truth about Pius XII. The following are just a few of the many facts about Pius XII and his activities both before and during World War II:

> Pius XII and the Catholic Church have been credited with saving over 800,000 Jewish lives during the Holocaust. If this is wrong by half, the number is still considerably more Jewish people saved than the combined number saved by any country, organization or individual during the war.

> Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir said, in a speech to the United Nations, following the death of Pius XII in 1958, “During the ten years of Nazi terror, when our people went through the horrors of martyrdom, the Pope raised his voice to condemn the persecutors and commiserate with the victims.” In addition, many Jewish organizations praised Pope Pius XII at the time of his death for saving Jewish lives. A few of these organizations were the World Jewish Congress, the Anti-Defamation League, the Synagogue Council of America and the Rabbinical Council of America.

> As Vatican Secretary of State under Pius XI, Cardinal Pacelli (the future Pius XII) lodged nearly 60 formal protests with the Nazis over their treatment of the Jews. In 1938 Cardinal Pacelli spoke out in Paris against the Nazi “pagan cult of race,” as well as the “vile criminal actions” and “iniquitous violence” of the Nazi leadership. As Pope Pius XII, he also spoke out regularly against the Nazi evil. His first encyclical in 1939 called the Nazis “an ever-increasing host of Christ’s enemies.“ Some may still argue that his many condemnations of the Nazis were not enough. Does anyone believe that hourly, daily or weekly condemnations from the Vatican would have had any effect on Hitler, a self-described pagan? In fact, it has been reported that when pronouncements against Nazism were made by the Vatican, it often increased the persecution of the Catholic Church in Germany. Vatican Radio and the Vatican newspaper, L’Osservatore Romano, both issued regular statements condemning Nazi actions. Prior to the war, weren't England, France, Austria, Italy, Russia and Japan falling over themselves trying to appease Hitler.

> In 1938, immediately after the death of Pius XI the German government issued a veiled threat to the Vatican College of Cardinals not to elect Cardinal Pacelli as Pope, as he was known to be an enemy of Nazism.

> During the war, the New York Times called Pius XII, “the only ruler left on the Continent of Europe who dares to raise his voice at all ... the Pope put himself squarely against Hitlerism ... he left no doubt that the Nazi aims are also irreconcilable with his own conception of a Christmas Peace.”

> Did some Catholics and Catholic clergy, in both word and action, provide support the Nazis? Of course. However, this was their own choice and it did not represent any kind of pro-Nazi policy on the part of the Vatican. Catholic support for Hitler and the Nazis was irreconcilable with the often stated policy of Pius XII.

There are many more truths countering the anti-Catholic falsehoods spread about His Holiness Pius XII. For a more detailed summary of the above facts, you can check out the extensive series of articles at the website of the Catholic League for Religious and Civil Rights at www.catholicleague.org.

Thank you.


Dave Livingston - 1/7/2005

When, if ever, will some people cease to use the oh so PC but dishonest and misleading term "Native American," one wonders? There are no "Native" Americans in the sense a people originated in the Americas. The American Indian merely immigrated to the Americas sooner than did the Frenchman, the Englishman, etc.

It is an illustration of the corruption of academia that academics permit themselves to be used to propagate this Big Lie of the so-called native Ameican. This term is an excellent example of Orwellian double-think in action.


maggie e. winslett - 12/1/2004

Presidential Library and Feed Store… Breaking News: George Bush is
planning to put his presidential library at CRAWFORD TEXAS.

GIVE me a break!
Why would you place a multi-million dollar building in a place so
small that there isn't even a THEATER? I'm not sure there is even a Feed
Store in Crawford Texas. 

And this little story about President Bush being a Texan, Rancher, Oilman, Preacher good "ol boy stuff has
gone far enough. The President and Laura LEFT MIDLAND AND MOVED TO
Dallas. That's not a small town. They lived in Preston Hollow... a very
expensive part of Dallas where everyone has Maids, New Cars, Fancy Vacations
and Exclusive Private Schools…

This Family is Neiman Marcus Prime Rib Stock.

Their two daughters attended Hockaday (.Dallas
premiere private girls school).
Laura has never done carpool in the family pick-up or shopped for clothes at
Wall-Mart…

But you want me to believe A PRESIDENTIAL library IS GOING TO
SPRING-UP IN Crawford AND George and Laura are going to become senior
citizens in a town where the cattle out number the people…

The trees are “scrubs”…

And the plumbing is done by septic tank!

Hee-haw ...not going to happen!
This is not a John Wayne cowboy movie. It’s real life and that
Library is going to be built someplace else… trust an ‘ol gal from
Texas...CRAWFORD will get a public library…may be with the feed store… some day… but not a George Bush Presidential one!!!!

maggie winslett


Tim Lacy - 11/19/2004

William Lyons, The Scotsman, 17 Nov. 2004

A series of letters written and received by Viscount Horatio Nelson, estimated to be worth more than GBP 25,000, have been discovered at the back of a wardrobe in an Edinburgh town house.

The previously lost letters, which will now be auctioned or sold to a British institution, chart different aspects of Nelson's career from his introduction to serve on HMS Seahorse at the age of 14 to his appointment as vice-admiral ten months before the Battle of Trafalgar, in 1805, during which he died.

John Dixon, an Edinburgh antique dealer who found the letters while undertaking a house clearance, said it as a "one-off fantastic discovery".

Mr Dixon, of the antique dealers Georgian Antiques, said: "The owner commissioned an auction house to value the contents of the house. I liked the furniture so bought it, and as we were going through the cupboards I chanced upon three framed pictures. The auction house had either ignored or missed them. I picked them up and immediately thought it was fantastic."

The first letter is framed in wood made from the ladder of HMS Victory down which Nelson was carried when mortally wounded at the Battle of Trafalgar. It is from a clerk in the navy office to a navy agent introducing the young Horatio Nelson. The second is from the Admiralty, making Horatio Nelson vice -admiral of the Blue Squadron of His Majesty's fleet. There is also a handwritten letter from Nelson thanking God for the recovery from injury of a friend.

The letters were originally owned by Sir William Augustus Fraser, an English politician, author and collector who died in 1898. It is not known how they came to be in the hands of the last owner.

The Nelson historian Dr Colin White, of the National Maritime Museum, said: "It is amazing that there is still material coming on the market about this man and turning up in private collections. I am looking forward to seeing what they contain."

Under Nelson's leadership, the Royal Navy proved its supremacy over the French, culminating with the Battle of Trafalgar, which saved Britain from threat of invasion by Napoleon.


Tim Lacy - 11/19/2004

Inigo Gilmore, THE DAILY TELEGRAPH(LONDON), 17 Nov. 2004

Ariel Sharon considered a military coup to force a war against Egypt in 1967, the Israeli prime minister confessed in a government publication released yesterday.

The revelation was contained in Ma'arachot, published by the defence ministry, and Mr Sharon's admission may lead to a re-examination of the build up to the 1967 war, which ended in the occupation of the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The study shows that the general staff, which included the then Maj Gen Sharon and Yitzhak Rabin, then chief of staff and later prime minister, was convinced that the country was in danger because the government was prevaricating over the launch of war. This caused Mr Sharon to consider locking up the cabinet. Mr Sharon admitted that he suggested to Mr Rabin that they could hold the cabinet in a room until "the chief of staff goes to Israel Radio and makes an announcement". According to Mr Sharon's account: "We often asked whether in the State of Israel there could arise a situation in which the army takes control. "And I always said it was impossible, that this couldn't happen in the State of Israel. "And then, after the meeting [with Levi Eshkol, the prime minister] on May 28, I said to the chief of staff and others who were present, that there had arisen a situation in which this could happen, and that it would also be well accepted - that is to say, to seize control not in the framework of wanting to govern, but in the framework of making a decision, the fundamental decision, and that [the] army can make it without the government. "I don't remember if he agreed or not, but I think he also viewed it in this way." Mr Sharon believes the government might have acceded, adding: "They would have accepted it with a sense of relief. That was my feeling." The army has long been known to have put fierce pressure on the government to declare what became the Six Day War but it was not previously known that Mr Sharon, or any other generals,went so far as to contemplate a coup. Stressing that no firm plot was drawn up, he confirmed that Yitzhak Rabin did not rule out the option after he discussed it with him. In what historians have called the "generals' revolt", Mr Sharon and others demanded Levi Eshkol, the Labour prime minister, declare war against Egypt. In his recently published book on the Six Day War, Jeremy Bowen, a BBC journalist, quotes Mr Sharon as telling Mr Eshkol that the Egyptians were ill prepared, and that "hesitation and delay" was eroding Israel's best deterrent, which was "the Arabs' fear of us". The military maintained that Israel must strike first, and regarded the build up of Egyptian armed forces in the Sinai peninsula and in the Red Sea as a casus belli. Mr Eshkol initially refused, holding out for international assistance that never arrived but finally he relented and ordered an attack on June 5.


Tim Lacy - 11/19/2004

Gary Cheung, South China Morning Post, 16 Nov. 2004

The tomb of a forgotten revolutionary - who plotted with the founder of the South China Morning Post in a failed attempt to capture Guangzhou in 1903 - has been discovered in Happy Valley's Hong Kong Cemetery.

Hung Chuen-fook was a man with impeccable revolutionary credentials.

His brother was Hung Hsiu-chuan , the "king" of the "Taiping heavenly kingdom" - territory ruled for more than a decade by Taiping rebels.

Their uprising against the Qing dynasty was bloodily suppressed in 1864.

Hung Chuen-fook was a prince of that short-lived "kingdom" who fought in the Taiping army. But when the Qing army captured the rebel capital of Nanking, today's Nanjing, he fled to Hong Kong.

A Hong Kong historian said the discovery of Hung's grave helped reinforce Hong Kong's role as the cradle of the prolonged revolution against the Qing dynasty.

The Antiquities and Monuments Office is considering setting up a commemorative plate to document Hung's deeds.

His grave had been untended for several decades when it was found by Andy Tse Kwok-cheong - an adviser to the Hong Kong Museum of History - and Joseph Ting Sun-pao, chief curator of this museum.

Mr Tse said he learned about the existence of Hung's tomb while reading historical records in the Beijing Municipal Archives. It was a fitting discovery for Mr Tse, whose grandfather, Tse Tsan-tai , was a co-organiser of the failed Taiping uprising.

Hung teamed up with Tse to plot an uprising to capture Guangzhou in January 1903. Li Ki-tong, a rich Hong Kong merchant, provided financial support.

On January 25, 1903, the plotters' headquarters, a building named Hejizhan, was raided by Hong Kong police. The raid began soon after Hung and Tse's younger brother left for Guangzhou to direct the revolt.

The site of Hejizhan, at 20 D'Aguilar Street in Central, is marked on the Sun Yat-sen Historical Trail.

The Guangzhou uprising failed, and provincial authorities arrested hundreds of revolutionaries.

Hung shaved his head and escaped to Singapore in disguise. He later returned to Hong Kong and died in 1904 at the age of 68.

Tse, who joined forces with Sun Yat-sen to form the Society for the Restoration of China in 1895, founded the South China Morning Post in November 1903 - soon after the abortive uprising - to espouse revolutionary ideals.

Sun subsequently led the Chinese revolution of 1911 and became the founder of modern China.

Andy Tse said: "It is regrettable that Hung and the 1903 uprising are not better remembered today."

He said Hung's tomb, marked with the number 6,781, was covered by thick grime that blurred the characters on the headstone. The headstone was erected in 1925.

Louis Ng Chi-wa, executive secretary of the Antiquities and Monuments Office, said his office was considering installing a commemorative plate beside Hung's tomb.

He said he would submit a proposal to the office's education and publicity committee next March and thought a plate might be installed in the middle of next year at the earliest.

Siu Kwok-kin, a professor with the Chu Hai Post Secondary College's department of Chinese literature, said the discovery of Hung's tomb provided crucial historical material on the link between Hong Kong and the Chinese revolution. "It helps reinforce Hong Kong's status as the cradle of the Chinese revolution," he said.

"The government should mention his tomb in publicity material," said Professor Siu, also an expert on Hong Kong history.


Tim Lacy - 11/19/2004

Cahal Milmo, The Independent (London), 16 Nov. 2004

A 51-year search for the truth about the death of a young serviceman during secret nerve-gas experiments ended yesterday when an inquest jury decided that he had been unlawfully killed by the British Government.

Ronald Maddison, 20, died in 1953 at the Porton Down research complex in Wiltshire after he and 348 other volunteers were exposed to massive doses of the sarin nerve agent during tests to establish its lethal dose.

His death resulted in one of the most enduring cover-ups of the Cold War after an initial inquest, held behind closed doors for "reasons of national security", returned a verdict of death by misadventure: it ruled that Leading Aircraftsman Maddison had died by choking. At the time, government lawyers recommended offering the dead man's relatives a pension to "dispose of the case", noting, "Least said, soonest mended".

But yesterday a jury of six men and four women, who spent 66 days hearing evidence in one of the longest post-war inquests, took less than five hours to decide LAC Maddison was killed by those in charge of the tests and, ultimately, the Ministry of Defence. The verdict will reopen the debate about the treatment of 3,400 servicemen who passed through Porton Down during the nerve gas experiments, in particular the 349 in tests to "discover the dosage of GB sarin which would cause incapacity or death".

Some 600 former military personnel have lodged compensation claims with lawyers amid calls for a public inquiry.

Ken Earl, spokesman for the Porton Down Veterans' Support Group, who underwent a similar experiment 12 days before LAC Maddison, said last night: "We hope the MoD will listen to this verdict and finally lift the restriction that for so many years has prevented us from seeking redress.

"This verdict shows illegal experiments were being carried out on unknowing servicemen who were being exposed to unacceptable risk of injury and, in the case of Ronald Maddison, death."

Terry Alderson, 74, another veteran who was in court to hear the verdict, said: "This shows what liars the MoD were. Nobody volunteered for these tests. We were sent in there like sheep. They treated us like human animals and we that are still alive are the lucky ones."

There was little immediate sign that the MoD would meet the veterans' demands. A spokesman said: "We will be seeking legal advice on whether we wish to consider a judicial review. We don't believe the verdict has implications for other volunteers." The decision may hinge on directions given by the Wiltshire coroner, David Masters.

The six-month-long inquest at Trowbridge heard that LAC Maddison, a fit ice-hockey player from Co Durham, had volunteered for the tests in return for a weekend pass and extra pay. Fellow veterans claimed they had had responded to notices at their bases advertising research into a cure for the common cold, although an MoD historian said no such link had been found.

When LAC Maddison arrived for his test on morning of 6 May, 1953, he was made to sit in a sealed chamber while wearing a gas mask and had 20 drops or 200mg of sarin, a colourless, odourless liquid, dropped onto a piece of cloth on his arm.

Each man in the group of five was given a pencil and paper on which to play noughts and crosses. After 23 minutes, LAC Maddison said he was feeling "pretty queer". Soon afterwards he collapsed and within 30 minutes he was dead.

Witnesses at the inquest, held after long legal battle culminating in a High Court ruling that the original proceedings had been seriously flawed, said staff had been unable to cope with the emergency. Alfred Thornhill, one of the ambulance drivers called to LAC Maddison's aid, said: "He was convulsing and foam was coming out of his mouth. They just threw him on to the bed and gave him a big injection. It was a terrible atmosphere; they were all panicking."

One expert told the hearing that the scientists had been "acting on the edge of their knowledge" and exposed the volunteers to "uncontrollable danger". The inquest was told that even after the government ordered a halt to experiments on people, further sarin tests were done in 1953 as Britain, America and Canada raced to develop a nerve gas capacity to counter the threat from the Soviet Union.

Lawyers for Lillias Craik, LAC Maddison's 70-year-old sister, who recently suffered a stroke after long years of campaigning, said she was pleased with the verdict and would now be seeking compensation.

Alan Kerr, representing the Maddison family, said: "The family now know how and why Ronnie died and they are pleased that the jury's verdict is unlawful killing by the state."


Shailender Sharma - 11/13/2004


Hey

None of us can survive without using email. But isn't it becomes a problem when you get more spam and receive less genuine mails.

But if you want to come out of this problem you may log in www.postmaster.co.uk


Paul Alfred Barton - 11/7/2004

THE ANCIENT MANDING-SHI (SAHARA/WEST AFRICAN) CIVILIZATION OF MEXICO/CENTRAL AMERICA

The presence of African/Black Negroid people in the America before Columbus extends to about 30,000 years or older. About three years ago, an article called, "The Peopling of America," (National Geographic), pointed out that Negroids/Australoids were the first people in the Americas. In fact the skulls of Negroid people said to be from Australia have been found in Brazil...about 50 in all.

The first civilization of the Americas to keep records about their past in words and in their architecture were the Olmecs or Manding-Shi. This ancient people were Negroid prople of West African origins who belonged to the Manding-Kushi group spread from Senegal to Sudan.

Records show the Manding-Shi migrated to the Americas about 3113 years Before Christ. In fact, as Zacharius Sitchin points out, the oldest calendar in Mexico, once thought to be Maya in origin is of Olmec (Manding-Shi) origins and was began in the year 3113 by Africans who landed in Mexico (see the great work, "A History of the African-Olmecs: Black Civilizations of America from Prehistoric Times to the Present Era," pub. by www.AuthorHouse.com 1663 Liberty Drive, Bloomington, Indiana 47403 USA).

The book mentioned above is one of the most important books about the Afro-Olmecs or the Manding-Shi people of ancient Mexico. The evidence for their presence in Mexico is solid. About 22 collosal stone heads of average about nine feet tall and over 23 feet in circumference are found throughout the southern region (of Mexico). These heads show distinct African Negroid features from the kinky hair carved at the top of one to the seven braids in the back of another. The facial features are distinctly African Negroid and specifically Ghana to Sudan types.

Added to these collosal stone works are hundreds of clay and terracota figurines and clay busts with African Negroid features. Most works with 'Indian' features show Mongoloid racial features and a few show mixed African/Mongoloid features
see http://community.webtv.net/pabarton

In retrospect, there is much about American history we are not aware of. There is still the mystry of the Black Giants of the Mississippi Valley who are said to have built many mounds in the region and whose descendants today are the Waschitaw Nation of Louisiana whose millions of acres were annexed during the 'Louisiana Purchase' about 1805.

Paul Barton
http://community.webtv.net/pabarton


Paul Alfred Barton - 11/7/2004

THE ANCIENT MANDING-SHI (SAHARA/WEST AFRICAN) CIVILIZATION OF MEXICO/CENTRAL AMERICA

The presence of African/Black Negroid people in the America before Columbus extends to about 30,000 years or older. About three years ago, an article called, "The Peopling of America," (National Geographic), pointed out that Negroids/Australoids were the first people in the Americas. In fact the skulls of Negroid people said to be from Australia have been found in Brazil...about 50 in all.

The first civilization of the Americas to keep records about their past in words and in their architecture were the Olmecs or Manding-Shi. This ancient people were Negroid prople of West African origins who belonged to the Manding-Kushi group spread from Senegal to Sudan.

Records show the Manding-Shi migrated to the Americas about 3113 years Before Christ. In fact, as Zacharius Sitchin points out, the oldest calendar in Mexico, once thought to be Maya in origin is of Olmec (Manding-Shi) origins and was began in the year 3113 by Africans who landed in Mexico (see the great work, "A History of the African-Olmecs: Black Civilizations of America from Prehistoric Times to the Present Era," pub. by www.AuthorHouse.com 1663 Liberty Drive, Bloomington, Indiana 47403 USA).

The book mentioned above is one of the most important books about the Afro-Olmecs or the Manding-Shi people of ancient Mexico. The evidence for their presence in Mexico is solid. About 22 collosal stone heads of average about nine feet tall and over 23 feet in circumference are found throughout the southern region (of Mexico). These heads show distinct African Negroid features from the kinky hair carved at the top of one to the seven braids in the back of another. The facial features are distinctly African Negroid and specifically Ghana to Sudan types.

Added to these collosal stone works are hundreds of clay and terracota figurines and clay busts with African Negroid features. Most works with 'Indian' features show Mongoloid racial features and a few show mixed African/Mongoloid features
see http://community.webtv.net/pabarton

In retrospect, there is much about American history we are not aware of. There is still the mystry of the Black Giants of the Mississippi Valley who are said to have built many mounds in the region and whose descendants today are the Waschitaw Nation of Louisiana whose millions of acres were annexed during the 'Louisiana Purchase' about 1805.

Paul Barton
http://community.webtv.net/pabarton


Paul Alfred Barton - 11/7/2004

THE ANCIENT MANDING-SHI (SAHARA/WEST AFRICAN) CIVILIZATION OF MEXICO/CENTRAL AMERICA

The presence of African/Black Negroid people in the America before Columbus extends to about 30,000 years or older. About three years ago, an article called, "The Peopling of America," (National Geographic), pointed out that Negroids/Australoids were the first people in the Americas. In fact the skulls of Negroid people said to be from Australia have been found in Brazil...about 50 in all.

The first civilization of the Americas to keep records about their past in words and in their architecture were the Olmecs or Manding-Shi. This ancient people were Negroid prople of West African origins who belonged to the Manding-Kushi group spread from Senegal to Sudan.

Records show the Manding-Shi migrated to the Americas about 3113 years Before Christ. In fact, as Zacharius Sitchin points out, the oldest calendar in Mexico, once thought to be Maya in origin is of Olmec (Manding-Shi) origins and was began in the year 3113 by Africans who landed in Mexico (see the great work, "A History of the African-Olmecs: Black Civilizations of America from Prehistoric Times to the Present Era," pub. by www.AuthorHouse.com 1663 Liberty Drive, Bloomington, Indiana 47403 USA).

The book mentioned above is one of the most important books about the Afro-Olmecs or the Manding-Shi people of ancient Mexico. The evidence for their presence in Mexico is solid. About 22 collosal stone heads of average about nine feet tall and over 23 feet in circumference are found throughout the southern region (of Mexico). These heads show distinct African Negroid features from the kinky hair carved at the top of one to the seven braids in the back of another. The facial features are distinctly African Negroid and specifically Ghana to Sudan types.

Added to these collosal stone works are hundreds of clay and terracota figurines and clay busts with African Negroid features. Most works with 'Indian' features show Mongoloid racial features and a few show mixed African/Mongoloid features
see http://community.webtv.net/pabarton

In retrospect, there is much about American history we are not aware of. There is still the mystry of the Black Giants of the Mississippi Valley who are said to have built many mounds in the region and whose descendants today are the Waschitaw Nation of Louisiana whose millions of acres were annexed during the 'Louisiana Purchase' about 1805.

The Waschitaw Nation is among one of the many Black nations found in the United States and elsewhere in the Americas when the first Europeans arrived. In fact, Columbus mentions the presence of West African trading items in the Americas. These included gold-tipped 'guanin' spears and the multicolored 'almaizer' cloth similar to that used by the Kru people of Liberia. Peter Matyr and Balboa both mentions African settlements in the region of Darien, Panama. They also mentioned the conflict and trade in the region between 'Ethiopian' (West African) seafarers and the 'Indians' (Native Americans) in the region.

Groups like the Black Califians of California, a state named after a Black amazon queen, called Calafia, the Guanini, Caracole, Kari, Black Caribs, Afro-Darienite, Chuarras of Brazil, Choco of Western Colombia, the Jamassee of Georgia, USA...and the many Black nations mentioned in the works of explorers like naturalist, I. Rafinesque (The Primitive Black Nations of America), American Friends; 1833/34: Philadelphia, PA), are among the many.

The sad irony is that of the 40 million African-Americans in the United States and the nearly 300 million people of African/pre-Columbian African origins in the US who exist from Canada to Uraguay, many are not aware of their true history. Fortunately, there are still 'tribes' and ethnic groups in existence today who still remember their ancient past. There are also very good historians, researchers and scientists who have worked deligently to put the pieces together and helped solved one of the greatest mystries of American History.

Paul Alfred Barton
nubianem2@webtv.net
nubianem@yahoo.com

Author of Susu Economics: The History of Pan-African Trade, Commerce, Money and Wealth," pub. by www.AuthorHouse.com


also, A History of the African-Olmecs: Black Civilizations of America from Prehistoric Times to the Present Era.
www.AuthorHouse.com
http://www.authorhouse.com/BookStore/itemDetail.aspx?bookid=24337

http://community.webtv.net/pabarton


"A History of Education Book II," pub. by www.xlibris.com

"A History of Racism and Terrorism, Rebellion and Overcoming," pub. by www.xlibris.com



Paul Barton
http://community.webtv.net/pabarton


Paul Alfred Barton - 11/7/2004

THE ANCIENT MANDING-SHI (SAHARA/WEST AFRICAN) CIVILIZATION OF MEXICO/CENTRAL AMERICA

The presence of African/Black Negroid people in the America before Columbus extends to about 30,000 years or older. About three years ago, an article called, "The Peopling of America," (National Geographic), pointed out that Negroids/Australoids were the first people in the Americas. In fact the skulls of Negroid people said to be from Australia have been found in Brazil...about 50 in all.

The first civilization of the Americas to keep records about their past in words and in their architecture were the Olmecs or Manding-Shi. This ancient people were Negroid prople of West African origins who belonged to the Manding-Kushi group spread from Senegal to Sudan.

Records show the Manding-Shi migrated to the Americas about 3113 years Before Christ. In fact, as Zacharius Sitchin points out, the oldest calendar in Mexico, once thought to be Maya in origin is of Olmec (Manding-Shi) origins and was began in the year 3113 by Africans who landed in Mexico (see the great work, "A History of the African-Olmecs: Black Civilizations of America from Prehistoric Times to the Present Era," pub. by www.AuthorHouse.com 1663 Liberty Drive, Bloomington, Indiana 47403 USA).

The book mentioned above is one of the most important books about the Afro-Olmecs or the Manding-Shi people of ancient Mexico. The evidence for their presence in Mexico is solid. About 22 collosal stone heads of average about nine feet tall and over 23 feet in circumference are found throughout the southern region (of Mexico). These heads show distinct African Negroid features from the kinky hair carved at the top of one to the seven braids in the back of another. The facial features are distinctly African Negroid and specifically Ghana to Sudan types.

Added to these collosal stone works are hundreds of clay and terracota figurines and clay busts with African Negroid features. Most works with 'Indian' features show Mongoloid racial features and a few show mixed African/Mongoloid features
see http://community.webtv.net/pabarton

In retrospect, there is much about American history we are not aware of. There is still the mystry of the Black Giants of the Mississippi Valley who are said to have built many mounds in the region and whose descendants today are the Waschitaw Nation of Louisiana whose millions of acres were annexed during the 'Louisiana Purchase' about 1805.

The Waschitaw Nation is among one of the many Black nations found in the United States and elsewhere in the Americas when the first Europeans arrived. In fact, Columbus mentions the presence of West African trading items in the Americas. These included gold-tipped 'guanin' spears and the multicolored 'almaizer' cloth similar to that used by the Kru people of Liberia. Peter Matyr and Balboa both mentions African settlements in the region of Darien, Panama. They also mentioned the conflict and trade in the region between 'Ethiopian' (West African) seafarers and the 'Indians' (Native Americans) in the region.

Groups like the Black Califians of California, a state named after a Black amazon queen, called Calafia, the Guanini, Caracole, Kari, Black Caribs, Afro-Darienite, Chuarras of Brazil, Choco of Western Colombia, the Jamassee of Georgia, USA...and the many Black nations mentioned in the works of explorers like naturalist, I. Rafinesque (The Primitive Black Nations of America), American Friends; 1833/34: Philadelphia, PA), are among the many.

The sad irony is that of the 40 million African-Americans in the United States and the nearly 300 million people of African/pre-Columbian African origins in the US who exist from Canada to Uraguay, many are not aware of their true history. Fortunately, there are still 'tribes' and ethnic groups in existence today who still remember their ancient past. There are also very good historians, researchers and scientists who have worked deligently to put the pieces together and helped solved one of the greatest mystries of American History.

Paul Alfred Barton
nubianem2@webtv.net
nubianem@yahoo.com

Author of Susu Economics: The History of Pan-African Trade, Commerce, Money and Wealth," pub. by www.AuthorHouse.com


also, A History of the African-Olmecs: Black Civilizations of America from Prehistoric Times to the Present Era.
www.AuthorHouse.com
http://www.authorhouse.com/BookStore/itemDetail.aspx?bookid=24337

http://community.webtv.net/pabarton


"A History of Education Book II," pub. by www.xlibris.com

"A History of Racism and Terrorism, Rebellion and Overcoming," pub. by www.xlibris.com



Paul Barton
http://community.webtv.net/pabarton


Tim Lacy - 11/5/2004

I'm sorry about the italics problem. - Tim


Tim Lacy - 11/5/2004

Gillian Harris, The Times (London), 01 Nov. 2004

Friends of a Scottish aristocrat who held fund-raising coffee mornings during the 1940s were involved in a clandestine spy ring, it was claimed yesterday.

The Duchess of Atholl and her friends, who met in one another's homes once a week, were thought to be exchanging gossip, recipes and knitting patterns while raising money for eastern European refugees.

But, according to the author of Morningside Mata Haris, the genteel ladies who met in the Edinburgh suburb were gathering information to help MI6 in its fight against communism.

Katherine Stewart Murray, the 8th Duchess of Atholl, who was the first Scottish woman to be elected to parliament in 1923, was a co-founder of the British League of European Freedom, set up in 1945 to assist refugees seeking asylum in Britain.

According to Douglas MacLeod, whose research will feature in a BBC Radio Scotland documentary, some in the openly anti-communist organisation were feeding information to British intelligence.

It is claimed that the duchess was introduced to members of the intelligence services when secretary of the Scottish Invasion Committee, which championed the cause of Polish refugees during the Second World War. The league offered the intelligence services an opportunity to recruit anti-communist spies who had contacts inside eastern European countries. In his book, MI6: Fifty Years of Special Operations, the historian Stephen Dorrill said it was understood that some league members used their contacts for intelligence purposes.

"This was to be used as intrusive intelligence gathering and as a warning system.

MI6 wanted to know if Red Army units mobilised and moved towards Europe," he wrote.

However, Elma Dangerfield, who co-founded the league, told the Sunday Herald newspaper that she knew nothing of any secret service involvement.

She recalled a meeting at which they agreed to found the league to highlight the plight of refugees escaping Soviet rule, but said that the duchess, who died in 1960, was not spying on behalf of intelligence agents.

Sheila Hetherington, the duchess's biographer, believed that her campaigning work could have brought her into contact with MI6 agents, but "she may not have been aware that she was giving assistance".


Tim Lacy - 10/28/2004

John Hooper, The Guardian (London), 23 Oct. 2004

Almost two decades of detective work, triggered by a Latin poem found in the Vatican archives, has led experts to conclude that a statue that had stood unnoticed for five centuries in a small southern Italian town is the work of a Renaissance master.

A new book by an Italian gallery director attributes the life-size statue to the 15th century artist Andrea Mantegna, whose paintings demonstrate a special genius for the creation of three-dimensional illusions.

Until recently, none of Mantegna's sculptures was thought to have survived. David Landau, who chaired the 1992 exhibition of Mantegna's works at the Royal Academy, said he had not yet studied the stone carving at first hand. But Mr Landau added: "When I saw the photographs I thought the claim was a very possible one. I certainly think it's something to be taken seriously."

The statue, of Saint Euphemia, stands behind a dusty glass panel on a high ledge in the cathedral at Irsina, a town 50 miles from Bari that now has a population of less than 7,000. St Euphemia, the patron saint of Irsina, was a young aristocrat from modern-day Turkey who was thrown to wild beasts in about 307 after she had refused to make a pagan sacrifice.

The carving shows her with one hand in the mouth of a lion - the pose used for a painting of St Euphemia by Mantegna in 1454 which hangs in the Museo di Capodimonte in Naples.

Clara Gelao, the author of the new book and director of the provincial art museum in Bari, said she had first noticed the statue in 1978.

She was struck by its "very high quality", but thought little more about it until nine years later when she learned of a Latin poem found in the Vatican by a local priest, Father Nicola Di Pasquale.

The poem, written in 1592 by the then Archdeacon of Irsina, listed a series of donations that had been made to the cathedral 150 years earlier by Roberto de Mabilia, the rector of a church in Padua, where Mantegna was then working.

The gifts included a bone reputedly belonging to St Euphemia, which persuaded Irsina to adopt her as patron when it was made a cathedral town in 1452, and a painting of the saint "by the excellent hand of Andrea to whom has been given the honorary name of Mantegna".

It was clearly a reference to the work on display in Naples.


Tim Lacy - 10/13/2004

Tim Luckhurst, Independent on Sunday (London), 10 Oct. 2004

The best selling wartime diary of a 12-year-old Dutch boy who survived the German invasion of Rotterdam before escaping to America was an elaborate fake by the British secret services designed to draw the US into the war, according to a new book.

Dirk van der Heide's story, My Sister and I, was hugely popular with American readers in the summer of 1941. With his mother killed by Luftwaffe bombs and his father in the army, the diaries tell how Dirk and his little sister Keetje made a dramatic escape to England.

In London they experienced the terror of the Blitz before, frightened and desperate, they embarked on a children's ship, one of the many that carried refugees to safety in America - dodging packs of U-boats on the way.

The diary continues to be read and commented upon as if it were authentic. But a new book, Witness to War (Doubleday), by the leading intelligence historian Professor Richard Aldrich, alleges that Dirk van der Heide's diary was part of a vast campaign by British Secret Services to lure America into the conflict.

It is the only wartime diary where the child author admits to writing under a pseudonym and no photographs of the family have ever been located.

The diary's British publishers, Faber & Faber, knew that it was a propaganda tool. British intelligence prevented the firm from sharing that fact with its American publisher, Harcourt Brace.

In the end, it was the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor that brought America into the war.


Lisa Kazmier - 9/1/2004

And "American Indian" is an honest term? Peoples inhabited the Americas long before there were Frenchmen and Englishmen and you would endorse a very sloppy "history" in order to reintroduce an inaccurate term going back to Columbus' mistaken notion that he found India. Try agin.


Andrew D. Todd - 8/28/2004

The last couple of items got garbled:

http://www.chemistry.ucsc.edu/teaching/Spring03/Chem112C/Paabo2.pdf

http://www-personal.umich.edu/~wolpoff/Papers/Concocting.PDF


Andrew D. Todd - 8/28/2004

Here is a source for the story with no registration requirement, and probably closer to the horse's mouth as well:

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2004/08/22/wnean22.xml&;sSheet=/news/2004/08/22/ixworld.html

There is a respectable body of thought in Physical Anthropology, people like C. Loring Brace (if memory serves me correctly), who hold that Neanderthal man is well within the range of variation of modern man. Neanderthal man is still with us, and, as Brace put it, would not be out of place in the New York subway. The classic Neanderthal types would have had a certain facial resemblance to a polar Eskimo (Inuit). There are Northern Europeans with that sort of face-- one fairly widely known example would be the actor Hardy Kruger, who played the stereotypically ruthless blond Teutonic warrior in umpteen war movies.

A lot of the stereotyping of Neanderthal man has involved very small samples. Parenthetically, I once asked an Alaskan archaeologist how you could tell sled dogs from wolves in the archaeological record. He replied that you couldn't, that the first overt evidence was when the Inuit eventually got around to making ivory sled runners for their dog sleds.

According to this source:

http://www.palanth.com/forum/index.php?topic=532.new

it seems that the disputed bone on which the dating controversy rests is apparently a recent discovery, and so out of context as to be almost worthless from an evidentiary point of view. In short, much ado about nothing.

-------------------------------------------

Some items relating to another Neanderthal controversy:

www.chemistry.ucsc.edu/">http://216.239.41.104/search?q=cache:NTeV7sqDrAsJ:www.chemistry.ucsc.edu/
teaching/Spring03/Chem112C/Paabo2.pdf+%22Neandertal+DNA+sequences+and+the+origin+
of+modern+humans%22&hl=en

http://www.the-scientist.com/yr1999/july/palevitz_p10_990719.html

www-personal.umich.edu/">http://216.239.41.104/search?q=cache:yZ4SUn0gdNYJ:www-personal.umich.edu/~wolpoff/Papers/Concocting.PDF+
%22Neandertal+DNA+sequences+and+the+origin+of+modern+humans%22&hl=en


Laura Odelius - 8/11/2004

http://www4.army.mil/news/article.php?story=6237
I went to grad school with Wayne Bowen. When I heard his reserve unit had been activated, I wondered what a PhD in history would do in Iraq. It's nive to see he is involved in something historical. Thanks for the story.

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